Upon the military insurrection of September 1881, Sherif was summoned by the khedive Tewfik to form a new ministry.
Sherif died at Gratz, on the 10th of April 1887.
The Somali, however, declare themselves to be of Arab origin, alleging their progenitor to have been a certain Sherif Ishak b.
From the south end of the square the rue Sherif Pasha - in which are the principal shops - and the rue Tewfik Pasha lead to the boulevard, or rue, de Rosette, a long straight road with a general E.
The sherif of the Hejaz, Abu-'l-berekat, made submission to Sultan Selim I.
But it was found politic to continue the office of the grand sherif of Mecca in the sherifian family.
In spite of the weak efforts of the British government to palliate the significance of this " untoward incident," Turkey broke off diplomatic relations with the three powers concerned, and on the 10th of December Mahmud, giving full vent to his rage, issued a hatt-i-sherif denouncing the cruelty and perfidy of the Christian powers, declaring the convention of Akkerman null and void, and summoning the faithful to a holy war.
In 1517 the Osmanli Turkish sultan Selim conquered Egypt, and having received the right of succession to the caliphate was solemnly presented by the sherif of Mecca with the keys of the city, and recognized as the spiritual head of Islam and ruler of the Hejaz.
'BOKHARA' (Bokhara-i-Sherif), capital of the state of Bokhara, on the left bank of the Zarafshan, and on the irrigation canal of Shahri-rud, situated in a fertile plain.
In Arabia were the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina, governed by the Sherif of Mecca, a dignitary and ruler of great influence in the Mahommedan world.
Randon (1795-1871), named governorgeneral of Algeria after the coup d'etat, had at first to repress in the south a rising of a new " master of the hour," Mahomet ben Abdallah, the sherif of Wargla.
A military demonstration on the 8th of September 1881, led by Arabi, forced the khedive to increase the numbers and pay of the army, to substitute Sherif Pasha for Riaz Pasha as prime minister, and to convene an assembly of notables.
Sherif fell in February, Mahmud Sami became prime minister, and Arabi (created a pasha) minister of war.
In six months the greater part of the Arabian peninsula was subject to All Bey, and he appointed as sherif of Mecca a cousin of his own, who bestowed on All by an official proclamation the titles Sultan of Egypt and Khk~n of the Two Seas.
The khedive, who had taken refuge in Alexandria, returned to Cairo, and a ministry was formed under Sherif Pasha, with Riaz Pasha as one of its leading members.
In vain the khedive and his prime minister, Sherif Pasha, threatened to resign, and the latter actually carried out his threat.
Nubar, though as strongly opposed to the abandonment policy as Sherif, consented to take his place and accepted somewhat reluctantly the new rgime, which he defined as the administration of Egypt under the government of Baring.
Malet had informed Sherif Pasha that, although Colonel Hicks finds it convenient to communicate with Lord Dufferin or with me, it must not be supposed that we endorse in any way the contents of his telegrams. - - - Her Majestys government are in no way responsible for his operations in the Sudan, which have been undertaken under the authority of His Highnesss government.
We do not here speak of the paper constitutions (khatt-i-sherif) and the like, created to impose upon Western diplomatists, but of such things as consular and commercial courts, criminal codes, and so forth.
On the other hand it may be mentioned that on the 30th of June 18J5 the cross was for the first time since the crusades borne aloft through the streets of Jerusalem on the occasion of the visit of a European prince; and that in 1858 the sacred area of the Haramesh-Sherif - the mosque on the site of the Temple of Jerusalem - was for the first time thrown open to Christian visitors.
He was master of the holy cities, and the official Moniteur Ottoman denounced his supposed plan of aiming at the caliphate in collusion with the sherif of Mecca.
In November 1839 was proclaimed an edict, known as the Hatt-i-sherif of Gulhane, consolidating and enforcing these reforms, which was supplemented at the close of the Crimean war by a similar statute issued in February 1856.
After that event Riaz, subordinating his vanity to his patriotism, accepted office as minister of the interior under Sherif Pasha.
By him the dignity of sherif was deprived of much of its weight, and in 1827 a change of dynasty was effected by the appointment of Ibn `Aun.
But the real sovereign of Mecca and the Hejaz is the sherif, who, as head of a princely family claiming descent from the Prophet, holds a sort of feudal position.
The dignity of sherif (or grand sherif, as Europeans usually say for the sake of distinction, since all the kin of the princely houses reckoning descent from the Prophet are also named sherifs), although by no means a religious pontificate, is highly respected owing to its traditional descent in the line of Hasan, son of the fourth caliph `Ali.
He was succeeded by Sultan Berkat, an Arab sherif of high rank, from the country of Taif in Arabia, who had married Sultan Akhmed's only child.
After the issue, 1839, of the hatt-i-sherif of Gal-khaneh, the tradesmen and artisans of the capital freed themselves from clerical control.
Mahommed Ahmed had, in accordance with the traditions which required the Mandi to have four khalif as (lieutenants), nominated, besides Abdullah, Ali wad Helu, a sheikh of the Degheim and Kenana Arabs, and Mahommed esh Sherif, his son-in-law, as khalifas.
Wad Helu and Sherif were stripped of their power and gradually all chiefs and amirs not of the Baggara tribe were got rid of except Osman Digna, whose sphere of operations was on the Red Sea coast.
In compliance with that treaty the sultan by the Hatti-Sherif of 1830 formally granted full autonomy to the Serbs, retaining at the same time Turkish garrisons in the Servian fortresses.
From a political point of view the sherif is the modern counterpart of the ancient amirs of Mecca, who were named in the public prayers immediately after the reigning caliph.
The kin of Ghalib and the house of Ibn`Aun - to assert the right of designating or removing the sherif, to whom in turn he owed the possibility of maintaining, with the aid of considerable pensions, the semblance of his much-prized lordship over the holy cities.
The grand sherif can muster a considerable force of freedmen and clients, and his kin, holding wells and lands in various places through the Hejaz, act as his deputies and administer the old Arabic customary law to the Bedouin.