The shepherds are rustics of the Colin Clout type, and discuss the follies and corruptions around them.
They are tent-dwellers, shepherds, sojourners (xvii.
The shepherds, rudely clad in a sleeveless sheepskin jacket, the wool outside, and leather breeches, and loosely wrapped in a woollen mantle or blanket, are among the most striking objects in a Spanish landscape, especially on the table-land.
Religious officials and shepherds in charge of flocks were exempt.
In Campania and Calabria the curatoli and massari earn, in money and kind, about 12 a year; cowmen, shepherds and multeers about 10; irregular workmen are paid from 8~d.
Next to Stanley the most important place on East Falkland is Darwin on Choiseul Sound - a village of Scottish shepherds and a station of the Falkland Island Company.
The peat is different in character from that of northern Europe: cellular plants enter but little into its composition, and it is formed almost entirely of the roots and stems of Empetrum rubrum, a variety of the common crowberry of the Scottish hills with red berries, called by the Falklanders the " diddle-dee " berry; of Myrtus nummularia, a little creeping myrtle whose leaves are used by the shepherds as a substitute for tea; of Caltha appendiculata, a dwarf species of marsh-marigold; and of some sedges and sedge-like plants, such as Astelia pumila, Gaimardia australis and Bostkovia grandif ora.
When cut open, it displays an infinity of tiny leaf-buds and stems, and at intervals there exudes from it an aromatic resin, which from its astringent properties is used by the shepherds as a vulnerary, but has not been converted to any commercial purpose.
The large majority of the inhabitants live in the East Island, and the predominating element is Scottish - Scottish shepherds having superseded the South American Gauchos.
The tithe had been replaced by an export tax on exported agricultural produce levied at the custom-houses, and the smaller peasant proprietors and shepherds of the mountainous districts were practically exempt from any contribution to the state.
The population in the lower and warmer valleys live in houses, and follow agriculture; in the higher regions they are nomadic shepherds, thinly scattered over a large area.
The Mongolians of the northern half of Asia are almost entirely nomadic, hunters and shepherds or herdsmen.
The tracts over which they roamed were in ordinary circumstances common to all shepherds alike.
The number of " agricultural labourers and shepherds," which affords a more precise index, declined in a still more marked degree.
The one answer was the Shepherds' Crusade, or Crusade of the Pastoureaux - "a religious Jacquerie," as it has been called by Dean Milman.
In this festival Pales was invoked to grant protection and increase to flocks and herds; the shepherds entreated forgiveness for any unintentional profanation of holy places of which their flocks might have been guilty, and leaped three times across bonfires of hay and straw (Ovid, Fasti, iv.
Only twenty-seven islands of the group are inhabited, but in the case of some of them the population consists solely of a few lighthouse attendants, shepherds and keepers.
Mithras was born of a rock, the marvel being seen only by certain shepherds, who brought gifts and adored him.
The same idea that the perfect ones are christs as having received the Paraclete is met with in early Christian documents, and still survives among the Syriac-speaking shepherds on the hills north of Mardin.
He does not seek in that poem to draw Italian peasants from the life, but to bring back the shepherds of Theocritus on Italian scenes.
His shepherds are not the shepherds of Theocritus, nor are they in any sense true to life.
It contains a fine "Annunciation" by Titian (1519), an important "Adoration of the Shepherds" by Paris Bordone (born at Treviso in 1500), and frescoes by Pordenone.
1-3): fire seizes the cedars of Lebanon and the oaks of Bashan.3 (2) The difficult passage about the shepherds follows.
The shepherds (rulers) of the nation make their flock an article of trade and treat the sheep as sheep for the shambles.
He destroys " the three shepherds " in one month, but is soon weary of his flock and the flock of him.
5 The same date may be assigned to (2), where the traffickers in the sheep may be regarded as the Seleucid rulers, and the shepherds as the Jewish high priests and ethnarchs; the prelude to the Maccabean revolt largely consisted of the rapid and violent changes here figured.
Sheep ranges under the care of Scottish shepherds have also been established in the department of Junin, the stock being imported from southern Patagonia, England and Australia.
The unworthy " shepherds " (v.
It is denominated by Humboldt 5 the " zodiac of hunters and shepherds," and he adds that the presence in it of a tiger gives it an exclusively Asiatic character.
Both are brought up among shepherds, carry on war against Fidenae and Veii, double the number of citizens, organize the army, and disappear from earth in a storm.
The forests are extensive and fine, and are now superintended by government officials, called 8avod, XaKEs, in spite or with the connivance of whom the timber is being rapidly destroyed - partly from the merciless way in which it is cut by the proprietors, partly from its being burnt by the shepherds, for the sake of the rich grass that springs up after such conflagrations, and partly owing to the goats, whose bite kills all the young growths.
The Sumerians and Accadians, the non-Semitic inhabitants of the Euphrates valley prior to the Babylonians, described the stars collectively as a " heavenly flock "; the sun was the " old sheep "; the seven planets were the " old-sheep stars "; the whole of the stars had certain " shepherds, " and Sibzianna (which, according to Sayce and Bosanquet, is the modern Arcturus, the brightest star in the northern sky) was the " star of the shepherds of the heavenly herds."
Each flock consists of about 10,000 sheep, under the command of a mayoral, and is divided into sections containing about 1000 each, each section tinder the charge of an overseer (capataz), who is assisted by a number of shepherds (pastores) attended by dogs.
But these pastures have been much damaged by the Provencal shepherds to whom they are let out, while the forests have been very much thinned (though extensive reafforestments are now being carried out) so that the soil is very dry and made drier by exposure to the southern sun.
The ancient inhabitants were a nation of shepherds and huntsmen, worshipping Pan, Hermes and Artemis, primitive nature-deities.
At higher altitudes long, cold, wet winters are experienced, with so short and cold a summer between them that the bleak paramos are left uninhabited except by a few shepherds in the short dry season.
Rumanian historians have striven, by Vlachs piecing together the stray fragments of evidence which survive, to prove that their Vlach ancestors had not, as sometimes alleged, been reduced to a scattered community of nomadic shepherds, dwelling among the Carpathians as the serfs of their more powerful neighbours.
A museum has now been built to contain the antiquities found in the excavations; otherwise Delos is now uninhabited, though during the summer months a few shepherds cross over with their flocks from Myconus or Rheneia.
Up to the snow limit (about 17,500 ft.), and covers a bleak, inhospitable territory, inhabited only by shepherds and miners.
The last raja of the Hindu dynasty found himself compelled to call for the assistance of the mountain shepherds, with their leader, Kambar, in order to check the encroachments of a horde of depredators, headed by an Afghan chief, who infested the country and even threatened to attack the seat of government.
By preference the condor feeds on carrion, but it does not hesitate to attack sheep, goats and deer, and for this reason it is hunted down by the shepherds, who, it is said, train their dogs to look up and bark at the condors as they fly overhead.
Besides these garments there are others: the long jubba, or cloth cloak, worn by mirzas (secretaries), government employs of high rank, as ministers, farmers of taxes, courtiers, physicians, priests; the abba, or camel-hair cloak of the Arab, worn by travellers, priests and horsemen; the pustin, or Afghan skincloak, used by travellers and the sick or aged; the nimtan, or common sheepskin jacket, with short sleeves, used by shopkeepers and the lower class of servants, grooms, &c., in winter; the yapanjah, or woollen Kurdish cloak, a kind of felt, having a shaggy side, of immense thickness, worn generally by shepherds, who use it as greatcoat, bed and bedding.