Religious officials and shepherds in charge of flocks were exempt.
In Campania and Calabria the curatoli and massari earn, in money and kind, about 12 a year; cowmen, shepherds and multeers about 10; irregular workmen are paid from 8~d.
Next to Stanley the most important place on East Falkland is Darwin on Choiseul Sound - a village of Scottish shepherds and a station of the Falkland Island Company.
The peat is different in character from that of northern Europe: cellular plants enter but little into its composition, and it is formed almost entirely of the roots and stems of Empetrum rubrum, a variety of the common crowberry of the Scottish hills with red berries, called by the Falklanders the " diddle-dee " berry; of Myrtus nummularia, a little creeping myrtle whose leaves are used by the shepherds as a substitute for tea; of Caltha appendiculata, a dwarf species of marsh-marigold; and of some sedges and sedge-like plants, such as Astelia pumila, Gaimardia australis and Bostkovia grandif ora.
When cut open, it displays an infinity of tiny leaf-buds and stems, and at intervals there exudes from it an aromatic resin, which from its astringent properties is used by the shepherds as a vulnerary, but has not been converted to any commercial purpose.
The large majority of the inhabitants live in the East Island, and the predominating element is Scottish - Scottish shepherds having superseded the South American Gauchos.
The shepherds are rustics of the Colin Clout type, and discuss the follies and corruptions around them.
The tithe had been replaced by an export tax on exported agricultural produce levied at the custom-houses, and the smaller peasant proprietors and shepherds of the mountainous districts were practically exempt from any contribution to the state.
The population in the lower and warmer valleys live in houses, and follow agriculture; in the higher regions they are nomadic shepherds, thinly scattered over a large area.
The Mongolians of the northern half of Asia are almost entirely nomadic, hunters and shepherds or herdsmen.
The tracts over which they roamed were in ordinary circumstances common to all shepherds alike.
The number of " agricultural labourers and shepherds," which affords a more precise index, declined in a still more marked degree.
The one answer was the Shepherds' Crusade, or Crusade of the Pastoureaux - "a religious Jacquerie," as it has been called by Dean Milman.
But the anti-clerical feeling and action of the Shepherds was new and ominous; and moved by its enormities the government suppressed the new movement ruthlessly.
In this festival Pales was invoked to grant protection and increase to flocks and herds; the shepherds entreated forgiveness for any unintentional profanation of holy places of which their flocks might have been guilty, and leaped three times across bonfires of hay and straw (Ovid, Fasti, iv.
Only twenty-seven islands of the group are inhabited, but in the case of some of them the population consists solely of a few lighthouse attendants, shepherds and keepers.
Mithras was born of a rock, the marvel being seen only by certain shepherds, who brought gifts and adored him.
The fraternal and democratic spirit of the first communities, and their humble origin; the identification of the object of adoration with light and the Sun; the legends of the shepherds with their gifts and adoration, the flood, and the ark; the representation in art of the fiery chariot, the drawing of water from the rock; the use of bell and candle, holy water and the communion; the sanctification of Sunday and of the 25th of December; the insistence on moral conduct, the emphasis placed upon abstinence and self-control; the doctrine of heaven and hell, of primitive revelation, of the mediation of the Logos emanating from the divine, the atoning sacrifice, the constant warfare between good and evil and the final triumph of the former, the immortality of the soul, the last judgment, the resurrection of the flesh and the fiery destruction of the universe - are some of the resemblances which, whether real or only apparent, enabled Mithraism to prolong its resistance to Christianity.
The same idea that the perfect ones are christs as having received the Paraclete is met with in early Christian documents, and still survives among the Syriac-speaking shepherds on the hills north of Mardin.
He does not seek in that poem to draw Italian peasants from the life, but to bring back the shepherds of Theocritus on Italian scenes.
His shepherds are not the shepherds of Theocritus, nor are they in any sense true to life.
It contains a fine "Annunciation" by Titian (1519), an important "Adoration of the Shepherds" by Paris Bordone (born at Treviso in 1500), and frescoes by Pordenone.
1-3): fire seizes the cedars of Lebanon and the oaks of Bashan.3 (2) The difficult passage about the shepherds follows.
The shepherds (rulers) of the nation make their flock an article of trade and treat the sheep as sheep for the shambles.
He destroys " the three shepherds " in one month, but is soon weary of his flock and the flock of him.
Two or three other shepherds joined him in the search.
When the stable boys and shepherds came out in the morning, they heard him singing; and they were so amazed that they stood still in the drifted snow and listened with open mouths.