Gowen (1836-1889), president of the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, sent James McParlan, an Irish Catholic and a Pinkerton detective (who some thirty years later attracted attention in the investigation of the assassination of Governor Steunenberg of Idaho), to the mining region in 1873; he joined the order, lived among the "Molly Maguires" for more than two years, and even became secretary of the Shenandoah division, one of the most notoriously criminal lodges of the order.
In the spring Banks was ordered to move against Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley, but the latter with superior forces defeated him at Winchester, Virginia, on the 25th of May, and forced him back to the Potomac river.
Roanoke is served by the Virginian railway, by the main line and the Shenandoah and the Winston-Salem divisions of the Norfolk & Western railway, and by electric railway to Vinton and to Salem.
He was later appointed a general officer of the Confederacy, and assigned to the command of the Army of the Shenandoah, being opposed by the Federal army under Patterson.
When McDowell advanced upon the Confederate forces under Beauregard at Manassas, Johnston moved from the Shenandoah Valley with great rapidity to Beauregard's assistance.
Enlisting in a Michigan cavalry regiment in September 1861, he rose from captain to colonel, distinguished himself in the Gettysburg campaign and under Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley, and in 1864 and 1865 respectively received the brevets of brigadier-general and major-general of volunteers.
It was eventually decided that General Banks was to oppose "Stonewall" Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley, Fremont to hold western Virginia against the same general's enterprise, and McDowell with a strong corps to advance overland to meet McClellan, who, with the main army, was to proceed by sea to Fortress Monroe and thence to advance on Richmond.
Johnston had, long ere this, fallen back from Manassas towards Richmond, and the two armies were in touch when a serious check was given to McClellan by the brilliant successes of Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley.
Subsidiary forces were to operate on the sea-board, in the Shenandoah Valley and elsewhere.
At the same time the Union troops under Sigel in the Shenandoah Valley were defeated at New Market (May 15).
The Army of the Shenandoah would not be thus handicapped, for Sheridan was a leader of exceptional character.
The Army of the Shenandoah was routed and driven towards the Potomac. But the gallant stand of the old Potomac troops of the VI.
The victory was decisive, and, the country being now bare of supplies, the Army of the Shenandoah was sent to reinforce Grant, while the remnant of Early's forces also went to Petersburg.
The "Shenandoah" was burning Union whalers in the Bering Sea when the war came to an end.
McClellandescribed this flight to the James as a change of base, but his resolve to abandon the attitude of an invader was formed when General Lee in the middle of June had caused Stuart's cavalry to reconnoitre the flanks and rear of McClellan's army, and had summoned corps from the Shenandoah Valley.
After the battle of Bull Run Jackson spent some time in the further training of his brigade which, to his infinite regret, he was compelled to leave behind him when, in October, he was assigned as a major-general to command in the Shenandoah Valley.
But the Stonewall brigade had been sent to its old leader in November, and by the time that the famous Valley Campaign (see Shenandoah Valley Campaigns) began, the forces under Jackson's command had acquired cohesion and power of manoeuvre.
Shenandoah limestone 2400 ft.
He took part in Early's campaign against Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley, and at Winchester (19th Sept.
The populations of the principal cities in 1900 were as follows: Philadelphia, 1,293,697 Pittsburg, 321,616; Allegheny, 129,896 (subsequently annexed to Pittsburg); Scranton, 102,026; Reading, 78,961; Erie, 52,733 Wilkes-Barre, 51,721; Harrisburg, 50,167; Lancaster, 4 1, 459; Altoona, 38,973; Johnstown, 35,936; Allentown, 35,416; McKeesport, 34, 22 7; Chester, 33,988; York, 33,708; Williamsport, 28,757; New Castle, 28,339; Easton, 25,238; Norristown, 22,265; Shenandoah, 20,321; Shamokin (borough), 18,202; Lebanon, 17,628.
HARPER'S FERRY, a town of Jefferson county, West Virginia, U.S.A., finely situated at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers (which here pass through a beautiful gorge in the Blue Ridge), 55 m.
It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio railway, which crosses the Potomac here, by the Winchester & Potomac railway (Baltimore & Ohio) of which it is a terminus, and by boats on the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, which passes along the Maryland side of the Potomac. Across the Potomac on the north rise the Maryland Heights; across the Shenandoah, on the West Virginia side, the Virginia or Loudoun Heights; and behind the town to the W.
The first settlement here was made about 1747 by Robert Harper, who ran a ferry across the Potomac. The position of Harper's Ferry at the lower end of the Shenandoah Valley rendered it a place of strategic importance during the Civil War.
In September 1862, during General Lee's first invasion of the North, General IIIcClellan advised that the place be abandoned in order that the io,000 men defending it might be added to his fighting force, but General Halleck would not consent, so that when Lee needed supplies from the Shenandoah Valley he was blocked by the garrison, then under the command of Colonel Dixon S.
Harper's Ferry was seriously damaged by a flood in the Shenandoah in October 1878.
P. Banks against "Stonewall" Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley, but showed little ability as a commander, was defeated by General Ewell at Cross Keys, and when his troops were united with those of Generals Banks and McDowell to form the Army of Virginia, of which General John Pope was placed in command, Fremont declined to serve under Pope, whom he outranked, and retired from active service.
In 1864 he was placed in command of the corps in the Shenandoah Valley, but was defeated by General John C. Breckinridge at Newmarket (15th of May), and was superseded.
He was on the staff of General George Crook at the battles of Opequan, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek in the Shenandoah valley, and on the r4th of March 1865 was brevetted major of volunteers for gallant and meritorious services.
He was appointed to command a new "Army of the Shenandoah" to oppose the forces of General Early, and conducted the brilliant and decisive campaign which crushed the Confederate army and finally put an end to the war in Northern Virginia (see American Civil War and Shenandoah Valley Campaigns).
A portion of this province in which weak rocks predominate gives an unusually broad valley region, known as the Valley of Virginia, drained by the Shenandoah river, and the headwaters of the James, Roanoke, New, and Holston rivers, which dissect the broad valley floor into gently rolling low hills.
At the N., near the mouth of the Shenandoah, the valley is about 250 ft.
But in the Newer Appalachians the streams more often follow the trend of the structure until they empty into one of the larger, transverse streams. Thus the Shenandoah flows N.E.
Manganese ore-mining began in Virginia in 1857 in the Shenandoah Valley, and the product increased from about 100 tons in that year to about 5000 tons (mined near Warminster, Nelson county) in 1868 and 1869.
Part of the state is entered by the Baltimore & Ohio, which has a line down the Shenandoah Valley to Lexington.
20, 1716) into the Shenandoah Valley reaching the water-parting between the Atlantic and the Ohio river.'
In the autumn he operated in the Shenandoah Valley, and with Early was defeated by Sheridan at Winchester on the 19th of September.
The second was in respect of breaches of neutrality in allowing the "Alabama," the "Florida" (originally the "Oreto"), the "Shenandoah" and other Confederate vessels to be built and equipped on British territory.
It found that Great Britain was legally responsible for all the depredations of the "Alabama" and "Florida" and for those committed by the "Shenandoah" after she left Melbourne.
Cockburn alone, in that of the "Shenandoah" he and Baron d'Itajuba, dissented from the majority.
It is pleasantly situated in the fertile Shenandoah Valley about 720 ft.
Fort Loudoun Seminary for girls occupies the site of old Fort Loudoun, and in the city is the Shenandoah Valley Academy, a military school for boys.
Electricity, generated at the Shenandoah river, is used for power in many of the factories.
The Virginia Gazette and Winchester Advertiser, the first newspaper published in the Shenandoah Valley, was established here in 1787.
In the Civil War, Winchester, because of its position in the lower Shenandoah Valley, played a great part, and was several times the scene of engagements between the Union and Confederate forces - in 1862, Jackson's actions of Kernstown and Winchester; in the Gettysburg campaign, the capture of a Union garrison by Ewell (14-15 June 1863); and in Sheridan's campaign of 1864 the battle of Winchester or Opequon (Sept.
19, 1864), for all of which see Shenandoah Valley Campaigns.
Norris (ed.), History of the Lower Shenandoah Valley (Chicago, 1890), and T.
Cartmell, Shenandoah Valley Pioneers (Winchester, 1909).