At the age of eight he was taken in charge by an elder brother of his father, Howard Hastings, who held a post in the customs. After spending two years at a private, school at Newington Butts, he was moved to Westminster, where among his contemporaries occur the names of Lord Thurlow and Lord Shelburne, Sir Elijah Impey, and the poets Cowper and Churchill.
He had always opposed the American War, and on the accession of Lord Shelburne to power in 1782 was made bishop of Llandaff, being permitted to retain his other preferments on account of the poverty of the see.
Shelburne expected great service from him as a pamphleteer, but Watson proved from the ministerial point of view a most impracticable prelate.
In the Rockingham government that followed General Conway became commander-in-chief with a seat in the cabinet; and he retained office under Shelburne when Rockingham died a few months later.
Much information about Conway will also be found in the biographies of his leading contemporaries, Rockingham, Shelburne, Chatham, Pitt and Fox.
Of all his English friends none seem to have been so intimate with him as the 1st marquess of Lansdowne, better known as Lord Shelburne, and Mr, afterwards Sir Samuel, Romilly.
One important result of its publication was that, in 1781, Lord Shelburne (afterwards first marquess of Lansdowne) called upon its author in his chambers at Lincoln's Inn.
The countess Granville died on the 7th of October 1745, leaving one daughter Sophia, who married Lord Shelburne, 1st marquis of Lansdowne.
In 1772, the year in which he was chosen a foreign associate of the French Academy of Sciences, he accepted the position of librarian and literary companion to Lord Shelburne (afterwards ist Marquess of Landsdowne) at Calne, with a salary of £250 a year and a house.
When the disasters of the American war had at last made a change of ministry necessary, and the king applied to the Whigs, through the intermediary of Lord Shelburne, Fox made a very serious mistake in persuading the marquess of Rockingham not to insist on dealing directly with the sovereign.
The result was the formation of a cabinet belonging, in Fox's own words, partly to the king and partly to the country - that is to say, partly of Whigs who wished to restrain the king, and partly of the king's friends, represented by Lord Shelburne, whose real function was to baffle the Whigs.
Dissensions began from the first, and were peculiarly acute between Shelburne and Fox, the two secretaries of state.
Lord Shelburne meddled in the negotiations for the peace at Paris.
When the marquess of Rockingham died on the ist of July 1782, and the king offered the premiership to Shelburne, Fox resigned, and was followed by a part of the Rockingham Whigs.
In refusing to serve under Shelburne he was undoubtedly consistent, but his next step was ruinous to himself and his party.
Plausible excuses were made for the alliance, but to the country at large this union, formed with a man whom he had denounced for years, had the appearance of an unscrupulous conspiracy to obtain office on any terms. In the House of Commons the coalition was strong enough to drive Shelburne from office on the 24th of February.
The magnitude of the sum, and his acquiescence in the grant of pensions by the Shelburne ministry, convinced the country that his zeal for economy was hypocritical.
In the spring of 1782 Franklin had been informally negotiating with Shelburne, secretary of state for the home department, through the medium of Richard Oswald, a Scotch merchant, and had suggested that England should cede Canada to the United States in return for the recognition of loyalist claims by the states.
After the short ministry of Shelburne, succeeding the death of Rockingham, the duke of Portland was selected by Fox and North as a "convenient cipher" to become the head of the coalition ministry, to the formation of which the king was with great reluctance compelled to give his assent.
The 2nd Baron Grantham (1738-1786), ambassador at Madrid, and foreign secretary under Lord Shelburne, had two sons.
In 1767 he published a volume of sermons, which gained him the acquaintance of Lord Shelburne, an event which had much influence in raising his reputation and determining the character of his subsequent pursuits.
He preached to crowded congregations, and, when Lord Shelburne acceded to power, not only was he offered the post of private secretary to the premier, but it is said that one of the paragraphs in the king's speech was suggested by him and even inserted in his words.
In September 1782 the place at Streatham was from motives of economy let to Lord Shelburne, and Mrs Thrale took a house at Brighton, whither Johnson accompanied her; they remained for six weeks on the old familiar footing.
The lines of Chatham's policy were abandoned in other cases besides the imposition of the import duty; his opponents were taken into confidence; and friends, such as Amherst and Shelburne, were dismissed from their posts.
When at length in October 1768 he tendered his resignation on the ground of shattered health, he did not fail to mention the dismissal of Amherst and Shelburne as a personal grievance.
1708), daughter of Sir Hardress Waller (1604-1666), the Irish Cromwellian soldier and regicide, was created Baroness Shelburne by James II.
In 1688; and her two sons were successively created earls of Shelburne, but on their death without issue the Petty estates passed to their sister, Anne, and after her marriage to the 1st earl of Kerry the Shelburne title was revived in her son's favour (see under Lansdowne, Ist Marquess).