The grand vizier (sadr-azam), who is nominated by the sultan, presides ex officio over the privy council (mejliss-i-khass), which, besides the Sheikh-ul-Islam, comprises the ministers of home and foreign affairs, war, finance, marine, commerce and public works, justice, public instruction and " pious foundations " (evkaf), with the grand master of ordnance and the president of the council of state.
The Turks occupied Sheikh `Othman, but were unable to threaten Aden itself.
The Sheikh of Bahrein exercises no authority over the mainland, which from the S.
Sheikh, Burao and Bohotle are all on the caravan route from Ogaden to Berbera.
Of the treaty of Erzerum, Muhamrah was alternately claimed and occupied by Persia and Turkey, its ruler, an Arab sheikh, helping either power as he found it convenient.
- The territory comprises the peninsulas of Aden proper and Little Aden, a strip of mainland including the villages of Sheikh `Othman, 6 m.
Other methods of disposing of him having failed, the Porte made his nephew a rival sheikh; but he basely assassinated him.
Thus the sheikh ul-Islam 'Abbas' (who was deposed by the professors of the Azhar in 1882) had in the first period of his presidency a sharp conflict with 'Abbas Pasha, viceroy of Egypt, who asked of him an unjust legal opinion in matters of inheritance.
Herodotus describes the festival of Bubastis, which was attended by thousands from all parts of Egypt and was a very riotous affair; it has its modern equivalent in the Moslem festival of the sheikh Said el Badawi at Tanta.
Es-Sheikh, or Hermon (8000 ft.).
At Thebes, New York has also carried out work at Qurnet Murra`i and Sheikh `Abd el Qurna, as well as at Dra t Abul Neqqa and Deir el Bahri, 55 where the Earl of Carnarvon, assisted by Mr. Howard Carter, has also dug with remarkable success, recovering some of the most beautiful relics of the art of the XII.
In the second category were included the imperial civil list, the departments of the Sheikh-ulIslamat and of religious establishments, the ministries of the interior, war, finance, public instruction, foreign affairs, marine, commerce (including mines and forests), and public works, and, finally, of the grand master of ordnance.
His marriage with Mal Khatun, the daughter of the learned sheikh Edbali, has been surrounded by poetical legend; he married his son Orkhan to the beautiful Greek Nilofer, daughter of the lord of Yar Hissar, whom he carried off from her destined bridegroom on her marriage-day; the fruits of this union were Suleiman Pasha and Murad.
The highest dignitaries of the ecclesiastical class were at first the kazaskers, or military judges, of Europe and Asia; later the office of Sheikh-ul-Islam was created as the supreme authority in matters relating to the Church and the sacred law.
Thus Sultan Ibrahim was dissuaded from such a step in 1644 only by the refusal of the Sheikh-ul-Islam to sanction the proceeding.
After the promulgation of the reforms, the judicial duties of the Imperial Divan, which with other functions also exercised those of a kind of supreme court of appeal, were transferred to the Sheikh-ul-Islam.
The rules regulating the Ulema were amended, a school for judges was founded, and the Sheikh-ul-Islam was charged with the duty of revising all judgments.
These succeeded in gaining over the Sheikh-ul-Islam, and in obtaining from him a fetva for the deposition of Abd-ul-Aziz.
Otherwise the revolution was effected almost without bloodshed; for a time the insurgent bands disappeared in Macedonia, and the rival " nationalities " - Greek, Albanian, Turk, Armenian, Servian, Bulgarian and Jew - worked harmoniously together for the furtherance of common constitutional aims. On the 6th of August Kiamil Pasha, an advanced Liberal, became grand vizier, and a new cabinet was formed, including a Greek, Prince Mavrocordato, an Armenian, Noradounghian, and the Sheikh-ul-Islam.
The most notable prose work of this period is an old collection of stories, the History of the Forty Vezirs, said to have been compiled by a certain Sheikh-zada and dedicated to Murad II.
Three poets of note--Pertev, Neshet and Sheikh Ghalib - flourished under Selim III.
Four lines, the first, second and fourth of which have the same rhyme, while the third usually (but not always) remains rhymelesswas first successfully introduced into Persian literature as the exclusive vehicle for subtle thoughts on the various topics of Sufic mysticism by the sheikh Ab Said bin Abulkhair,1 but Omar differs in its treatment considerably from Ab Said.
Under the protection of a sheikh of the Fukara Bedouin he wandered over the whole of the borderland between Hejaz and Nejd.
In their previous travels in Syria they had gained the confidence and friendship of a young sheikh whose family, though long settled at Tadmur, came originally from Nejd, and who was anxious to renew the connexion with his kinsmen by seeking a bride among them.
Here the sheikh found some of his relations and the matrimonial alliance was soon arranged; but though the object of the journey had been attained, the Blunts were anxious to visit Hail and make the acquaintance of the amir Ibn Rashid, of whose might and generosity they daily heard from their hosts in Jauf.
The town is named after a celebrated sheikh buried here, by whose tomb travellers crossing the desert used formerly to deposit all superfluous goods, the sanctity of the saint's tomb ensuring their safety.
The principal mosque of the town is a church of the crusaders converted to Mahommedan worship. Towards the end of the 18th century it was the headquarters of the turbulent sheikh Kasim el-Ahmad.
They own a chief sheikh, resident at Jeba`a, and have the reputation, like most heretical communities in the Sunni part of the Moslem world, of being exceedingly fanatical and inhospitable.
The narratives, viewed dispassionately, represent him as an idealized sheikh (with one important exception, Gen.
No longer a peaceful sheikh but a warrior with a small army of 318 followers,4 he overthrows a combination of powerful monarchs who have ravaged the land.
The name and the cones are accounted for by a legend which represents that at this spot lived a sheikh who, finding his sister too beautiful to be married to anyone else, determined to espouse her himself.
Whilst the marriage festivities were being celebrated the judgment of Heaven descended on the guilty pair; fire came from below; the water became hot and the sheikh and his sister were turned into stone.
It was at this period that the great insurrection of the Walidsidi-Sheikh broke out in the Sud Oranais.
Compelled to guard themselves on the south against the Walid-sidi-Sheikh,the French realized how much they P. L.
They then accepted the services offered to them by Si-Sliman-benKadour, chief of the younger branch of the Walid-sidi-Sheikh, who maintained tranquillity in the Sud Oranais during the great insurrection of Kabylia in1871.
He had an interview with El Haddad, the sheikh of the Khuans, the religious confraternity of Sidi-Abd-er-Rahman, whose influence was great, and having secured his support in April 1871, Mokrani proclaimed the holy war.
The death of the bach-agha at the battle of Suflat, the submission of the Sheikh El Haddad, and finally the arrest of Bu-Meyrag, brother of Mokrani, mark the declining stages of the insurrection, which was completely suppressed by August 1871.
In 1883 Si-Hamza, chief of the elder branch of the Walid-sidi-Sheikh, made his submission, and since then that family has remained devoted to France.
Since then the governor of the town and adjoining district has been a sheikh of the K'ab or Chaab Arabs, a powerful tribe of the Shi'ah branch of Islam.
On July 20 of the same year reinforced Aden troops surprised the Turks at Sheikh `Othman, inflicted on them considerable loss and they retired to Lahej.
In 1895 the chief of Katr (Sheikh Jasim ben Thani), instigated by the Turks, attacked Sheikh Isa of Bahrein, but his fleet of dhows was destroyed by a British gunboat, and Bahrein (like Zanzibar) has since been detached from Oman and placed directly under British protection.
This council consists of the sheikh or religious chief of each of the four orthodox sects, the sheikh of the mosque of Azhar, who is of the sect of the Shafiis, the chief (nakib) of the Sherifs, or descendants of Mahomet, and others.
Among the Moslems the Sheikh-elIslam, appointed by the khedive from among the Ulema (learned class), exercises the highest religious and, in certain subjects, judicial authority.
The necessity for a reorganization of the Azhar system itself being also recognized by the high Moslem dignitaries in Egypt, a law was passed in 1907 creating a superior board of control under the presidency of the Sheikh el-Azhar to supervise the proceedings of the university and other similar establishments.
These are all presided over by a direct descendant of the caliph Abu Bekr, called the Sheikh El-Bekri.
Border of the desert are the tombs of Deshgsha, Meir and Assiflt, and on the east bank those of Beni Hasan, the rockcut temple of Speos Artemidos, the tombs of El Bersha and Sheikh Said, the tonibs and stelae of El Amarna with the alabaster quarries of, Hanub in the desert behind them, and the tombs of Deir el Gebrgwi.
Darfur and Kordofan.On the outbreak of the mahdis rebellion Slatin Bey was governor of the province, and when Madibbo, the insurgent sheikh of Rizighat, attacked and occupied Shakka and was following up his success, Slatin twice severely defeated him, and, having concentrated his forces at El Fasher, repulsed the enemy again at Om Shanga.
The Darfurian chiefs then allied themselves with Abu Gemaiza, sheikh of the Masalit Arabs, who had proclaimed himself Khalifa Osman, and was known as the anti-mahdi.
When bribes and threats failed, the sheikh was thrown into chains and treated with great severity, but it was the pasha who finally yielded, and `Abbasi was recalled to honours and rich rewards.
Having kissed the hands of the sheikh and teachers of his school, the pupil awaits the beginning of the lectures.
He nominates the Sheikh ul-Islam or mufti (q.v.) of Constantinople (grand mufti), who is his representative in the imamate and issues judgments in points of faith and law from which there is no appeal; but the nomination must fall on one of the mollahs, 2 who form the upper stratum of the hierarchy of ulema.
The grand mufti of Constantinople is, as we have seen, nominated by the sultan, but his hold on the people makes him quite an independent power in the state; in Cairo he is not even nominated by the government, but each school of law chooses its own sheikh, who is also mufti, and the IIanifite is head mufti because his school is official in the Turkish Empire.
The British Government undertook in addition to afford their good offices to the Sheikh in the event of unprovoked aggression by land.
Arabistan, which is under the hereditary government of the Sheikh of Mohammerah, is exclusively Shiah.
Suleiman's claims to renown as a legislator rest mainly on his organization of the Ulema, or clerical class, in its hierarchical order from the Sheikh-ul-Islam downwards.
Even in Upper Egypt a few decades ago, there was a tomb of the Mahommedan sheikh Heridi, who - it is alleged - was transformed into a serpent; in cases of sickness a spotless virgin entered the cave and the serpentoccupant might permit itself to be taken in procession to the patient.
Towards the end of the 18th century it seems to have revived under the comparatively beneficent rule of Dhahar el-Amir, the local sheikh: his successor, Jezzar Pasha, governor of Damascus, improved and fortified it, but by heavy imposts secured for himself all the benefits derived from his improvements.
Sultan Ahmad, eldest son of Abu Said, reigned in Bokhara; his brother, Ornar Sheikh, in Ferghana; but the son of the latter, the great Babar, was driven by the Uzbegs to Kabul and India.
More to the purpose is it that Sultan IJosain Mirza, great-grandson of Omar Sheikh, son of Timur, reigned 10 in Herat from 1487 to 1506.
At last a youth named Alamut, aged fourteen years, was raised to the throne, which he held till the succession of Sheikh Ismail.
Now little is known, save incidentally, of Julaver or Rustam; but Baisingar is the name of a nephew of Omar Sheikh, king of Ferghana and contemporary of Uzun Ilasan.
The Sufi or Safawid (Safawi) Dynasty (149g1736).Sheikh Saifu d-Din Izhak lineally descended from Musa, the seventh Sb Ikh imamwas a resident at Ardebil (Ardabil) southS,,ffi,.d.DIfl.west of the Caspian, some time during the I4th century.
The act ensured to the Sheikh the constant devotion and gratitude of these men a feeling which was loyally maintained by their descendants for the members of his family in successive generations.
Junaid, a grandson of the last, married a sister of Uzun I-~Iasan, and by her had a son named Sheikh Sb ikh Haidar, who married his cousin Martha, daughter Haldar.