Sheik himself invaded Asia Minor and forced the Turkoman states to acknowledge his suzerainty.
On the 23rd of May 1412, after being defeated and shut up in Damascus, he was compelled by Sheik Mabrnudi to abdicate, and an Abbasid caliph, Mostain, was proclaimed sultan, only to be forced to abdicate on the 6th of November of the same year in Sheiks favor, who took the title Malik al-Muayyad, his colleague Newruz having been previously sent to Syria, where he was to be autocrat by the terms of their agreement.
Sheik Mubarak and his allies continued their advance, defeated Ibn Rashid in two engagements on the 22nd of July and the 26th of September 1904, and drove him back on his capital, Hail.
As late as the 19th century the sheik Nasif ul Yaziji (1800-1871) distinguished himself by writing sixty clever Magamas in the style of Hariri (ed.
In 1517 Egypt became part of the Ottoman empire and was governed by pashas sent from Constantinople, whose influence about 1707 gave way to that of ~fficials chosen from the Mamelukes who bore the title Sheik al-balad.
Most of his reign was, however, occupied with revolts on the part of the Syrian amirs, to quell whom he repeatedly visited Syria; the leaders of the rebels were the ami~s Newruz and Sheik MabniudI, afterwards sultan.
Sheik himself died a few months after the decease of his son (January I3th, 1421), and another infant son, A.!zmad, was proclaimed with the title Mcilik al-Mozaffar, the proclamation being followed by the usual dissensions between the amirs, ending with the assumption of supreme power by the amir Tatar, who, after defeating his rivals, on the 29th of August 1421 had himself proclaimed sultan with the title Malik al-~ahir.
He thereby excited the suspicions of the Sheik al-Balad Khalil Bey, who organized an attack upon him in the streets of Cairo, in consequence of which he fled to Upper Egypt.
On the 1st of February 1773 he received information from Cairo that Abul-Dhahab had made himself Sheik al-Balad, and in that capacity was practising unheard-of extortions, which were making Egypt with one voice call for the return of All Bey.
Made Sheik al-Balad and a new pasha installed as governor.
The present Sheik of Bahrein (who lives chiefly at Moharek) is of the family of El Kalifa.
He looked slim and sheik in gray slacks.
The 'Ulema form a powerful corporation, whose head, the Sheik-ul-Islam, ranks as a state functionary almost co-equal with the grand vizier.
Three years later Katif, at that time their chief city, was besieged and taken by a Bedouin sheik, and subsequently their political power in Arabia came to an end.
Owing to the dissensions among the ruling family of Riad, the towns of eastern Nejd gradually reverted to their former condition of independence, but menaced in turn by the growing power of Hail, they formed a coalition under the leadership of Zamil, sheik of Aneza, and in the spring of 1891, Aneza, Bureda, Shakra, Ras and Riad assembled their contingents to contest with Ibn Rashid the supremacy in Nejd.
In 1901 a quarrel arose between Sheik Mubarak of Kuwet and the amir of Hail whose cause was supported by Turkey.
This very likely formed the nucleus of a book which bore the name of that sheik and was much read in the 3rd century from the Flight.
A little later (January 1657) he suppressed with ruthless severity a rising of the spahis; a certain Sheik Salim, leader of the fanatical mob of the capital, was drowned in the Bosporus; and the Greek Patriarch, who had written to the voivode of Wallachia to announce the approaching downfall of Islam, was hanged.
By the 18th century the importance of the pasha was quite superseded by that of the beys, and two offices, those of Sheik al-Balad and Amir al-~ajj, which were held by these ~of thC persons, represented the real headship of the community.
In 1707 the Sheik al-Bamad, Qgsim Iywa.z, is found at the head of one of two Mameluke factions, the Qasimites and the Fiqarites, between whom the seeds of enmity were sown by the pasha of the time, with the result that a fight took place between the factions outside Cairo, lasting eighty days.
In 1724 this person was assassinated through the machinations of the pasha, and Shirkas Bey, of the opposing faction, elevated to the office of Sheik al-B alad in his place.
1750), and after it he was made Sheik al-Balad.
Omar, who obtained for him the goodwill of the Porte and reinstatement in his post as Sheik al-Balad.
After All Beys death Egypt became once more a dependency of the Porte, governed by Abul-Dhahab as Sheik al-Balad with the title pasha.
Ismll Bey now became Sheik al-B alad, but was soon involved in a dispute with Ibrhim and Murad, who after a time succeeded in driving IsmaIl out of Egypt and establishing a joint rule (as Sheik al-B alad and Amir al-I.Ijj respectively) similar to that which had been tried previously.
Three thousand men and 29 amirs of importance, including Sheik-ed- din, the khalifas eldest son and intended successor, surrendered.
The methods of binding the pagri are innumerable, each method having a distinctive name as arabi (Arab fashion); mansabi (official fashion, much used in the Deccan); mushakhi (sheik fashion); chakridar (worn by hadjis, that is those who have made the pilgrimage to Mecca); khirki-dar (a fashion of piling the cloth high, adopted by retainers of great men); latudar (top-shaped, worn by kayasths or writers); joridar (the cloth twisted into rope shape) (Plate I.
The officials charged with the administration of justice according to the shar are judges, called sheik/i-ui-islam and kazi (had/i, kadi or cadi of Arabs and Turks), members of the clergy appointed by the government and receiving a fixed salary, but some cities are without regular appointed judges and the title of cadi is almost obsolete; decisions according to the .char are given by all members of the clergy, ranging from ignorant mullahs of little villages and cantons to learned mujiahids of the great cities.
This sheik established himself at Sokoto, and with other titles assumed that of Sarikin Muslimin (king of the Mahommedans).
In 1834 the independent power of the Kurds in Armenia was greatly curtailed; and risings under Bedr Khan Bey in 1843, and Sheik Obeidullah in 1880, were firmly suppressed.
Born on the 14th of February 1483, he was a descendant of Timur, and his father, Omar Sheik, was king of Ferghana, a district of what is now Russian Turkestan.
The chief of the lecturers, called the Sheik el-Azhar, receives about £zoo a year, the others little or nothing, as regular pay.
The affairs of the tribe are administered by the sheiks, or heads of clans and families; the position of sheik in itself gives no real governing power, his word and counsel carry weight, but his influence depends on his own personal qualities.
In the meantime Sheik Mubarak had found useful allies in the Muntafik Arabs from the lower Euphrates, and the Wahhabis of Riad; the latter under the amir Ibn Saud marched against Ibn Rashid, who at the instigation of the Porte had again threatened Kuwet (Koweit), compelled him to retire to his own territory and took possession of the towns of Bureda and Aneza.
Had resumed direct control over Tripoli (1835), and in the middle of the 19th century Cyrenaica was still so free of the Turks that Sheik Ali bin-Senussi chose it as the headquarters of his nascent dervish order.