It has also been conferred during the closing years of the 19th century by letters patent on other cities - Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Sheffield, Leeds, Cardiff, Bradford, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Belfast, Cork.
Pym Yeatman, Records of the Borough of Chesterfield (Chesterfield and Sheffield, 1884); Thomas Ford, History of Chesterfield (London, 1839).
The growth of the oak is slow, though it varies greatly in different trees; Loudon states that an oak, raised from the acorn in a garden at Sheffield Place, Sussex, became in seventy years 12 ft.
In bringing about this " fall," however, Parsons the Jesuit appears to have had a considerable share; at least Lord Sheffield has recorded that on the only occasion on which Gibbon talked with him on the subject he imputed the change in his religious views principally to that vigorous writer, who, in his opinion, had urged all the best arguments in favour of Roman Catholicism.
But be this as it may, he had no sooner adopted his new creed than he resolved to profess it; " a momentary glow of enthusiasm " had raised him above all temporal considerations, and accordingly, on June 8, 1753, he records that having " privately abjured the heresies" of his childhood before a Catholic priest of the name of Baker, a Jesuit, in London, he announced the same to his father in an elaborate controversial epistle which his spiritual adviser much approved, and which he himself afterwards described to Lord Sheffield as having been " written with all the pomp, the dignity, and self-satisfaction of a martyr."
Lord Sheffield merely replies, somewhat weakly it must be said, that his friend never intended the words to be taken literally.
In April 1793 he unexpectedly received tidings of the death of Lady Sheffield; and the motive of friendship thus supplied combined with the pressure of public events to urge him homewards.
He arrived in England in the following June, and spent the summer at Sheffield Place, where his presence was even more highly prized than it had ever before been.
Returning to London early in November, he found it necessary to consult his physicians for a symptom which, neglected since 1761, had gradually become complicated with hydrocele, and was now imperatively demanding surgical aid; but the painful operations which had to be performed did not interfere with his customary cheerfulness, nor did they prevent him from paying a Christmas visit to Sheffield Place.
His remains were laid in the burial place of the Sheffield family, Fletching, Sussex, where an epitaph by Dr Parr describes his character and work in the language at once of elegance, of moderation and of truth.
He was essentially humane; and it is worthy of notice that he was in favour of the abolition of slavery, while humane men like his friend Lord Sheffield, Dr Johnson and Boswell were opposed to the antislavery movement.
Gibbon's Miscellaneous Works, with Memoirs of his Life and Writings, composed by himself; illustrated from his Letters, with occasional Notes and Narrative, published by Lord Sheffield in two volumes in 1796, has been often reprinted.
Sheffield, speaker of the House of Commons, were both sent to the Tower for complaining of his conduct.
In 1849 the Great Central (then the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire) railway initiated a scheme of reclamation and dock-construction.
Association (Sheffield Meeting, 1 879), p. 356.
He now formed the design of joining the Austrian army, for the purpose of campaigning against the Turks, and so crossed over from Dover to Calais with Gibbon, who, writing to his friend Lord Sheffield, calls his fellow-passenger "Mr SecretaryColonel-Admiral-Philosopher Thompson."
The Church had theological colleges at Manchester and Sheffield, boys' schools at Shebbear, in Devonshire, and at Harrogate, and a girls' school at Bideford.
1743), who married James Annesley, 5th earl of Anglesey, and afterwards John Sheffield, duke of Buckingham and Normanby.
Elliott lost all his money, and when he was forty years old began business again in Sheffield on a small borrowed capital.
He contributed verses from time to time to Tait's Magazine and to the Sheffield and Rotherham Independent.
Roebuck, the Radical member for Sheffield, gave notice that he would move for a select committee " to inquire into the condition of our army before Sevastopol, and into the conduct of those departments of the government whose duty it has been to minister to the wants of that army."
The speech is unfortunately lost, but Gibbon, who heard it, told his friend Holroyd (afterwards Earl of Sheffield) that Fox, "taking the vast compass of the question before us, discovered powers for regular debate which neither his friends hoped nor his enemies dreaded."
The most successful of the first class, or pick machines, that of William Firth of Sheffield, consists essentially of a horizontal pick with two cutting arms placed one slightly in advance of the other, which is swung backwards and forwards by a pair of bell crank levers actuated by a horizontal cylinder engine mounted on a railway truck.
Subsequently the insurgents gathered in small bands in Berkshire county; but here, a league having been formed to assist the government, 84 insurgents were captured at West Stockbridge, and the insurrection practically terminated in an action at Sheffield on the 27th of February, in which the insurgents lost 2 killed and 30 wounded and the militia 2 killed and 1 wounded.
Arches of planks bolted together), were built for some of the earlier railways, particularly the Great Western and the Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire.
SAMUEL BAILEY (1791-1870), British philosopher and author, was born at Sheffield in 1791.
He was among the first of those Sheffield merchants who went to the United States to establish trade connexions.
After a few years in his father's business, he retired with an ample fortune from all business concerns, with the exception of the Sheffield Banking Company, of which he was chairman for many years.
On two occasions he stood for Sheffield as a "philosophic radical," but without success.
In the report of the joint committee appointed for the purpose by the county boroughs of Bradford, Hull, Leeds, Rotherham and Sheffield in 1908, the following conclusions were drawn: (I) Cows' milk freshly drawn from the udder by ordinary methods contains bacteria.
Of Sheffield, on the Midland, North-Eastern and Great Central railways.
SHEFFIELD PLATE, the name applied to a variety of articles of domestic use or ornament, made of copper coated with silver by a special and now abandoned process.
Many of them were actually manufactured in Birmingham, but as the secret of producing the material was discovered and brought to perfection in Sheffield, the name of that town was naturally connected with it, and thence transferred to articles constructed from it.
Another difficulty, the concealment of the inner core of copper which was seen as a thin red line when a cut edge was exposed, was met about 1784 by George Cadman, who adopted the practice of soldering on an edging, generally ornamented, of solid silver so as to cover the junction, and the presence of this is one of the trustworthy tests by which genuine Sheffield plate may be recognized.
The labour of rolling the metal by hand was done away with about 1760, by the firm of Tudor, Leader & Sherburn, who first employed horse-power, and for more than half a century the trade both in Sheffield and Birmingham continued to flourish.
De Ruolz of Paris started in business on those lines, and the slower and consequently more costly manufacture at Sheffield and Birmingham rapidly died out.
Of recent years old Sheffield plate after long neglect has come into fashion again, and genuine articles in good condition have greatly gone up in value, often exceeding in cost those of more modern date in sterling silver.
The pressure to which the Sheffield plate was submitted produces a definite colour and texture which is absent from the surface produced by the deposit of silver in a liquid medium by electrical means, and the coat of silver is spread by the latter uniformly over the whole surface without a break, while in the former the junction between the embossed ornaments and the silver strips covering the cut edges may often be detected on careful examination.
See Sheffield Plate by Bertie Wyllie; H.
Veitch, Sheffield Plate: its history, manufacture and art (London, 1908).
None of them came to much good, except the Sheffield museum, which is an established success, and is now transferred to the town.
Besides these five groups, an obscure road, called by the Saxons Akeman Street, gave alternative access from London through Alchester (outside of Bicester) to Bath, while another obscure road winds south from near Sheffield, past Derby and Birmingham, and connects the lower Severn with the Humber.
On October 1st Mr Balfour spoke at Sheffield, reiterating his views as to free-trade and retaliation, insisting that he "intended to lead," and declaring that he was prepared at all events to reverse the traditional fiscal policy by doing away with the axiom that import duties should only be levied for revenue purposes.
Of Sheffield, on the Midland railway.
Stockport is served by the London & North Western, Midland, Great Central, Cheshire lines, and Sheffield & Midland railways, and has tramway connexion with Manchester.
On the 28th of November she was removed to Sheffield Castle, where she remained for the next fourteeen years in charge of the earl of Shrewsbury.
But on that occasion Elizabeth again refused her assent either to the trial of Mary or to her transference from Sheffield to the Tower.
This plan was but part of a scheme including the invasion of England by her kinsman the duke of Guise, who was to land in the north and raise a Scottish army to place the released prisoner of Sheffield beside her son on the throne of Elizabeth.
Anthony Babington, in his boyhood a ward of Shrewsbury, resident in the household at Sheffield Castle, and thus subjected to the charm before which so many victims had already fallen, was now induced to undertake the deliverance of the queen of Scots by the murder of the queen of England.
From Sheffield Lodge, twelve years later, she applied to the archbishop of Glasgow and the cardinal of Guise for some pretty little dogs, to be sent her in baskets very warmly packed, - "for besides reading and working, I take pleasure only in all the little animals that I can get."
Leader, Mary Queen of Scots in Captivity (Sheffield, 1880); Colin Lindsay, Mary Queen of Scots and her Marriage with Bothwell (London, 1883); Mrs Maxwell-Scott, The Tragedy of Fotheringay (London, 1895); F.
ANTHONY BABINGTON (1561-1586), English conspirator, son of Henry Babington of Dethick in Derbyshire, and of Mary, daughter of George, Lord Darcy, was born in October 1561, and was brought up secretly a Roman Catholic. As a youth he served at Sheffield as page to Mary queen of Scots, for whom he early felt an ardent devotion.
John, Lord Sheffield, 18 37, pp. 403-427).
Salem was settled in 1626 by Roger Conant (1593-1679) and a company of "planters," who in 1624 (under the Sheffield patent of 1623 for a settlement on the north shore of Massachusetts Bay) had attempted a plantation at Cape Ann, whither John Lyford and others had previously come from Plymouth through "dissatisfaction with the extreme separation from the English church."
Of Sheffield on the Great Central and Midland railways.
Speaking at Sheffield on the 13th of October he criticized the scheme in more detail, and, as an Imperialist, warned the country against it, emphasizing his own ideal of the future of the empire - "a strong mother with strong children, each working out his own political and fiscal salvation."
In November 1868 he was returned to parliament for Sheffield as an advanced Liberal.
He represented that constituency until November 1885, when he was returned for the Brightside division of Sheffield, which he continued to represent until his death.
All Mercia south of a line from Dore (near Sheffield), through Whitwell to the Humber, was now in Edmund's hands, and the five Danish boroughs, which had for some time been exposed to raids from the Norwegian kings of Northumbria, were now freed from that fear.
Of Sheffield and N.E.
The examinations of the newer universities, the Victoria University of Manchester, Birmingham, Liverpool, Leeds, Sheffield and Wales, are open only to students at these universities, and are conducted by the teachers in association with one or more external examiners for each subject.
CHARLES HARDING FIRTH (1857-), British historian, was born at Sheffield on the r6th of March 1857, and was educated at Clifton College and at Balliol College, Oxford.
The manufacture of matches is aided by the existence of sulphur workings in the vicinity; and Albacete formerly had an extensive trade in cutlery, from which it was named the Sheffield of Spain.
In 1912 he became vicechancellor of Sheffield University.
There he remained until 1864, when he became an assistant master at the Sheffield Collegiate School.
Sheffield is north and Tuscumbia is south.