If this pressure is not relieved in some way, the train may be derailed either (I) by " climbing " the outer rail, with injury to that rail and, generally, to the corresponding wheel-flanges; (2) by overturning about the outer rail as a hinge, possibly without injury to rails or wheels; or (3) by forcing the outer rail outwards, occasionally to the extent of shearing the spikes that hold it down at the curve, thus spreading or destroying the track.
In his eighteenth year, while still a student in Edinburgh, he contributed two valuable papers to the Transactions of the same society - one of which, " On the Equilibrium of Elastic Solids," is remarkable, not only on account of its intrinsic power and the youth of its author, but also because in it he laid the foundation of one of the most singular discoveries of his later life, the temporary double refraction produced in viscous liquids by shearing stress.
In 1893, at Chester, self-binding harvesters and sheep-shearing machines (power) were the appliances respectively in competition.
In 1900, at York, the competitions were concerned with horse-power cultivators, self-moving steam diggers, milking machines and sheep-shearing machines (power and hand).
The orthoschists are white mica-schists produced by the shearing of acid rocks, such as felsite and porphyry.
A large part of the foreign trade is in their hands, and at the season of the sheep-shearing their agents and representatives are found everywhere among the Bedouins and Madan Arabs of the interior, purchasing the wool and selling various commodities in return.
On coming of age he got employment at Hempstead, Long Island, making machines for shearing cloth; three years afterwards he set up in this business for himself, having bought the sole right to manufacture such machinery in the state of New York.
Every solid substance is found to be plastic more or less, as exemplified by punching, shearing and cutting; but the plastic solid is distinguished from the viscous fluid in that a plastic solid requires a certain magnitude of stress to be exceeded to make it flow, whereas the viscous liquid will yield to the slightest stress, but requires a certain length of time for the effect to be appreciable.
An angular velocity R, which gives components - Ry, Ix of velocity to a body, can be resolved into two shearing velocities, -R parallel to Ox, and R parallel to Oy; and then ik is resolved into 4'1+1'2, such that 4/ 1 -R-Rx 2 and 1//2+IRy2 is constant over the boundary.
In driving levels it is necessary to cut grooves vertically parallel to the walls, a process known as shearing; but the most important operation is that known as holing or kirving, which consists in cutting a notch or groove in the floor of the seam to a depth of about 3 ft., measured back from the face, so as to leave the overhanging part unsupported, which then either falls of its own accord within a few hours, or is brought down either by driving wedges along the top, or by blasting.
The thermal coefficient of expansion of steel and concrete is nearly the same, otherwise changes of temperature would cause shearing stress at the junction of the two materials.
In., and the working shearing stress 75 lb per sq.
Bridges would then be designed for these selected loads, and the process would be safer in dealing with flooring girders and shearing forces than the assumption of a uniform load.
For shearing stresses the working stress may have o 8 of its value for tension.
The shearing area of rivets in tension members was made r z times the useful section of plate in tension.
For compression members the shearing area of rivets in butt-joints was made half the useful section of plate in compression.
For practical purposes it is accurate enough to consider the booms or chords as carrying exclusively the horizontal tension and compression and the web as resisting the whole of the vertical and, in a plate web, the equal horizontal shearing forces.
If A is the area of the plate web in a vertical section, the intensity of shearing stress is fs = S/A and the intensity on horizontal sections is the same.
To the left and right of the load are R 1 and -R 2, and the distribution of shearing force is given by two rectangles.
2 c t- - -4 4c 4c which is also the shearing force at C for that position of the load.
Travels the reverse way, the shearing force at the head of the train is given by the ordinates of the dotted parabola.
If the unit load is at F', the reaction at B' and the shear at C' is /l, positive if the shearing stress resists a tendency of the part of the girder on the right to move upwards; set up Ft = m/l (fig.
The process of shearing takes place in early spring, the average amount of wool yielded FIG.
It has considerable compressive or crushing strength, but is somewhat deficient in shearing strength, and distinctly weak in tensile or pulling strength.
Concrete by itself, though strong in compression, can offer but little resistance to tensile and shearing stresses, and as these stresses always occur in beams the problem arises how best to arrange the steel so as to assist the concrete in bearing them.
Generally placed near the under and upper surface of the beam they are of little use in helping to resist the shearing stresses which are great- 1 est at its neutral axis.
(See Bridges.) These shearing stresses in a heavily loaded beam would cause it to split horizontally at or near the centre.
But in a thin slab, with its comparatively small span and light load, the concrete is generally strong enough to bear the shearing stresses unaided, and the reinforcement is devoted to assisting it where the tensile stresses occur.
Maundy Thursday is sometimes known as Sheer or Chare Thursday, either in allusion, it is thought, to the "shearing" of heads and beards in preparation for Easter, or more probably in the word's Middle English sense of "pure," in allusion to the ablutions of the day.
Then came innumerable varieties of manual work for the erection and keeping up of hedges, the preservation of dykes, canals and ditches, the threshing and garnering of corn, the tending and shearing of sheep and so forth.
The theorem that any coplanar system of forces can be reduced to a force acting through any assigned point, together with a couple, has an important illustration in the theory of the distribution of shearing stress and bending moment in a horizontal beam, or other structure, subject to vertical extraneous forces.
The force measures the shearing stress, and the couple the bending moment at P; we will reckon these quantities positive when the senses are as indicated in the figure.
17 a number in any state or Territory except Montana and Wyoming; but the number of sheep has since decreased (while that of neat cattle has increased) and in April 1909 there were only 825,000 sheep of shearing age in New Mexico.
In 1852 he produced "Girls Sewing," "Man Spreading Manure"; 1853, "The Reapers"; 1854, "Church at Greville"; 1855 - the year of the International Exhibition, at which he received a medal of second class - "Peasant Grafting a Tree"; 1857, "The Gleaners"; 1859, "The Angelus," "The Woodcutter and Death"; 1860, "Sheep Shearing"; 1861, "Woman Shearing Sheep," "Woman Feeding Child"; 1862, "Potato Planters," "Winter and the Crows"; 1863, "Man with Hoe," "Woman Carding"; 1864, "Shepherds and Flock, Peasants Bringing Home a Calf Born in the Fields"; 1869, "Knitting Lesson"; 1870, "Buttermaking"; 1871, "November - recollection of Gruchy."