CADI (gddi), a judge in a malikama or Mahommedan ecclesiastical court, in which decisions are rendered on the basis of the canon law of Islam (shari `a).
Fed by the Shari and other rivers, the lake has no outlet and its area varies according to the season.
The flood water brought down by the Shari in December and January causes the lake to rise to a maximum of 24 ft., the water spreading over low-lying ground, left dry again in May or June.
The southern basin of Chad is described under the Shari, which empties its waters into the lake about the middle of the southern shore, forming a delta of considerable extent.
There was also at one time communication between the Shari and the Bahr-el-Ghazal, so that the water of the firstnamed stream reached Chad by way of the Bahr-el-Ghazal.
Besides the Shari, the only important stream entering Lake Chad is the Waube or Yo (otherwise the Komadugu Yobe), which rises near Kano, and flowing eastward enters the lake on its western side 40 m.
A small steamer, brought from the Congo by Emile Gentil, was in 1897 launched on the Shari, and reaching the Chad, navigated the southern part of the lake.
Lenfant, also a French officer, succeeded in reaching the lake (which he circumnavigated) via the Benue, proving the existence of water communication between the Shari and the Niger.
Through the Tuburi marshes there is a water connexion between the Benue (Niger) and Shari (Lake Chad) systems.
Thus Pizigano's map of 1367 extends as far east as the Gulf of Persia, whilst the Medicean map of 1356 (at Florence) is remarkable on account of a fairly correct delineation of the Caspian, the Shari river in Africa, and the correct direction given to the west coast of India, which had already been pointed out in a letter of the friar Giovanni da Montecorvino of 1252.
Where the Nile, Congo and Shari watersheds meet.
The frontier turns eastwards to the Logone, thence going north-east to the Shari river, which it follows to Lake Chad.
In the north the country drains into Lake Chad through the Logone and Shari (q.v.).
The Niger and Shari systems communicate, with, at high water, but one obstruction to navigation.
Gulfei on the lower Shari and Kusseri on the Logone are also towns of some note.
It is also possible by this route to proceed by small boat via the Shari system to Lake Chad.
Southwest of the Mameluke tombs is the much-venerated tomb-mosque of the Imam esh-Shafih or Shari, founder of one of the four orthodox sects of Islam.
The river Shari forms the western boundary.
Numerous tributaries of the Shari flow through the country, but much of the water is absorbed by swamps and sand-obstructed channels, and seasons of drought are recurrent.
The capital is Chekna, on a tributary of the Shari, the former capital, Massenia, having been destroyed in 1898.
Fort Lamy at the confluence of the Logone and Shari, and Fort de Cointet on the middle Shari, are French posts round which towns have grown.
Apart; the Niger communicates directly through the Benue, Lake Tuburi and the Logone with the Shari; the easternmost affluents of the Shari and the most western tributaries of the Bahr el Ghazel affluent of the Nile are within 20 m.
In Ptolemy, too, appears along with Gir (possibly the Shari) a certain Nigir (NL'yap) as one of the largest rivers of the interior; but so vague is his description that it is impossible definitely to identify it with the Niger.'
From Idrisi's description it would appear that he regarded the Shari, Lake Chad, the Benue, Niger and Senegal as one great river which emptied into the Atlantic. 2 That the Niger flowed west and reached the ocean was also stated by Leo Africanus.
North of the Congo basin and separated from it by a broad undulation of the surface is the basin of Lake Chad - a flat-shored, shallow lake filled principally by the Shari coming from the south-east.
In the Laila, and limiting the great parallel basins of the Rion, Ingur and Skenis Shari [= Tskhenis-Tskhali] ..."
The best known in this section are the three Baksan passes of Chiper (io,800 and 10,720 ft.), Bassa (9950 ft.) and Donguz-orun (10,490 ft.), south of Elbruz; those of Becho (11,070 ft.), Akh-su (12,465 ft.), Bak (10,220 ft.), Adyr-su (12,305 ft.) and Bezingi (10,090 ft.), between Elbruz and Dykh-tau; and those of Shari-vizk (11,560 ft.), Edena, Pasis-mta or Godivizk (11,270 ft.), Shtulu-vizk (10,860 ft.), Fytnargyn (11,130 ft.), between Dykh-tau and Adai-khokh; the Bakh-fandak (9570 ft.), between Adai-khohk and Kasbek; and the two Karaul passes (11,680 and 11,270 ft.) and Gurdzi-vizk (10,970 ft.), connecting the valley of the Urukh with that of the Rion.