When the king of Persia, Shapur, captured Mazaca-Caesarea, the Cappadocian capital, Samuel refused to mourn for the 12,000 Jews who lost their livesin its defence.
Nev-shapur-nev, New Pers.
The second element of the name is that of the traditional founder Shapur, or Sapor of the Western historians.
Some accounts name the first (241-272), others the second Shapur (309-379).
The Tigris begins to rise about the middle of November and is highest in May and June, and lowest in September and October, The principal towns on its banks are Diarbekr (anc. Amida), on the western branch; Bitlis, on the eastern branch; Mosul; Tekrit, a town dating from Persian days, said to have been founded by Shapur I.
It was taken by Tigranes and destroyed by the Persian king Shapur (Sapor) I.
Shushan or Susa, the capital now marked by the mounds of Shush, stood near the junction of the Choaspes and Eulaeus (see SusA); and Badaca, Madaktu in the inscriptions, lay between the Shapur and the river of Diz.
This gigantic work, the line of which may still be traced throughout its course, was formerly called the Khandak Sabur or " Sapor's trench," being ascribed to the Sassanian king, Shapur I.
Of the rivers of Fars only three important ones flow into the sea: (1) the Mand (Arrian's Sitakos), Karaagha.ch in its upper course; (2) the Shapur or Khisht river (Granis); (3) the Tab (Oroatis).
It was probably not long after this that Odenathus, with a keen eye for his advantage, made an attempt to attach himself to Shapur I.
With his Palmyrene troops, 4 strengthened by what was left of the Roman army corps, he took the offensive against Shapur, defeated him at Ctesiphon, and in a series of brilliant engagements won back the East for Rome.
It was heroically defended against Shapur (Sapor) II., who unsuccessfully besieged it thrice.
From a Pahlavi inscription we learn that he was the son (not, as the Greek authors and Tabari say, the grandson) of Shapur I., and succeeded his brother Hormizd (Ormizdas) I., who had only reigned a year.
(389-399), son and successor of Shapur III., under whom he had been governor of Kirman; therefore he was called Kirmanshah (Agathias iv.
At Gunde-Shapur in this region " sugar was prepared with art " about the time of the Arab conquest, 3 and manufacture on a large scale was carried on at Shuster, Sus and Askar-Mokram throughout the middle ages.4 It has been plausibly conjectured that the art of sugar refining, which the farther East learned from the Arabs, was developed by the famous physicians of this region, in whose pharmacopoeia sugar had an important place.
His friendship with the King Shapur II.
But when his father was taken prisoner by Shapur I.
This he did at the court of the Persian king, Shapur I., and, according to the story, on the coronation day of that monarch (241/2).
In the closing years of the reign of Shapur I.
The successor of Shapur, Hormizd (272-273), appears to have been favourably disposed towards him, but Bahram I.
They are (1) The Book of Secrets (see Acta Archel.), containing discussions bearing on the Christian sects spread throughout the East, especially the Marcionites and Bardesanites, and dealing also with their conception of the Old and New Testaments; (2) The Book of the Giants (Demons ?); (3) The Book of Precepts for Hearers (probably identical with the Epistola Fundanienti of Augustine and with the Book of Chapters of Epiphanius and the Acta Archelai; this was the most widely spread and most popular Manichaean work, having been translated into Greek and Latin; it contained a short summary of all the doctrines of fundamental authority); (4) The Book Shahpurakan (Fliigel was unable to explain this name; according to Kessler it signifies "epistle to King Shapur"; the treatise was of an eschatological character); (5) The Book of Quickening (Kessler identifies this work with the "Thesaurus [vitae]" of the Acta Archelai, Epiphanius, Photius and Augustine, and if this be correct it also must have been in use among the Latin Manichaeans); (6) The Book (of unknown contents); (7) a book in the Persian language, the title of which is not given in our present text of the Fihrist, but which is in all probability identical with the "holy gospel" of the Manichaeans (mentioned in the Acta Archel.
3 recounts his interview with King Shapur I.
In 242 Mesopotamia was entered by a great Roman army which recovered Carrhae and Nisibis, and defeated the Persians at Rhesaena; but when Gordian, after a difficult march down the Khabur, was murdered at Zaitha below Circesium, Philip the Arabian (244) made the best terms he could with Shapur I.
A rest for Mesopotamia seems to have followed; but in 258 Shapur, tempted by the troubles in the Roman empire, overran the country taking Nisibis and Carrhae, and investing Edessa, and .vhen Valerian invaded Mesopotamia he was eventually made prisoner, by Edessa (260).
After a forty years' peace the struggle was resumed by Shapur II.
It was enlarged and strengthened by Constantius II., in whose reign it was taken of ter a long siege by Shapur (Sapor) II., king of Persia.
Jovian at once continued the retreat begun by Julian, and succeeded, continually harassed by the Persians, in reaching the banks of the Tigris, where a humiliating treaty was concluded with the Persian king, Shapur II.
There appear to have been at least two other grammarians of the same name: (i) Zenodotus of Alexandria, surnamed 2 Whether Shapur or his son Hormuzdi is not certain; Shapur's death is variously placed in 269 and 272.
18, according to which Shapur II.
Though anxious to avoid an Eastern war, because of danger nearer home from the restlessness of the Goths, he was compelled to take the field against Shapur II.
It was taken by Sapor (Shapur) II., and became the capital of an autonomous province of the Sassanian Empire, until it fell into the hands of the Arabs (c. 640), under whom it regained its autonomy.
He seems to have played an important part in guiding the fortunes of the city during the war begun by Shapur II.
Finally, he bears important contemporary witness to the sufferings of the Christian church in Persia under Sapor (Shapur) II.
The remainder of the vassal statesCarmania, Susiana, Mesenc were ended by Ardashir; and the autonomous desert fortress of Hatra in Mesopotamia was destroyed by his son Shapur (Sapor) I., according to the Persian and Arabian traditions, which, in this point, are deserving of credence.
I 5~ similarly under Shapur II.: Ammian.
Towards the end of his reign Ardashir resumed the attack; while his son Shapur I.
Then Shapur resumed the war, subdued Armenia and plundered Antioch.
C. 264) beat them back, and Odenathus (Odainath), prince of Palmyra, rose in their rear, defeated Shapur, captured his harem, and twice forced his way to Ctesiphon (263265).
Shapur was in no position to repair the defeat, or even to hold Armenia; so that the Sassanid power failed to pass the bounds of the Arsacid Empire.
Nevertheless Shapur I., in contrast to his father, assumed the title King of the kings of the Iranians and non-Iranians (/3ainXeis f3a~ltX&op Apiae&,e ical Avaptavh; shah an shah Iran we Aniran), thus emphasizing his claim to world dominion.
And Shapur 1., represents the king and the god Ormuzd both on horseback, the latter in the act of handing to his companion the ring of sovereignty.
A great victory might be woneven an emperor might be captured, like Valerianbut immediately afterwards successes, such as those gained against Shapur I.
In Armenia, also, Ardashir and Shapur, during the period of their occupation, sought to introduce the orthodox religion, destroyed the heathen imageseven those of the Iranian gods which were here considered heathenand turned the shrines into fire-altars (Gelzer, Ber.
Shapur I., who appears to have, had a broader outlook, added to the religious writings a collection of scientific treatises on medicine, asticonomy, mathematics, philosophy, zoology, &c., partly from Indian and Greek sources.
For Manichaeism is an attempt to weld the doctrine of the Gospel and the doctrine of Zoroaster Manlchae- into a uniform system, though naturally not without lam, an admixture of other elements, principally Babylonian and Gnostic. Mani, perhaps a Persian from Babylonia, is said to have made his first appearance as a teacher on the coronation day of Shapur I.
In Susiana Shapur I.
Built the great city of Gondev-Shapur, which succeeded the ancient capital of the Persian Empire.
And Shapur I.
The coins invariably bear a Pahlavi legendon the obverse the kings head with his name and title; on the reverse, a fire-altar (generally with the ascription fire of Ardashir, Shapur, &c,, .e.
Shapur I., 241272.