Of Shanghai in 30° 32' 51" N., 114° 1 9' 55" E., at a height of 150 ft.
2, for halfyear ended the 31st of March 1878, 15th issue (Shanghai); Lowry, " Notes on Epidemic Disease at Pakhoi " (1882), ibid., 24th issue, p. 31.
In October of the same year the American government in the Philippines, having to deal with the opium trade, raised the question of the taking of joint measures for its suppression by the powers interested, and as a result a conference met at Shanghai on the 1st of February 1909 to which China, the United States of America, Great Britain, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Persia, Portugal and Russia sent delegates.
For passages on board a vessel which was about to sail for Shanghai (1863).
In English his chief works were Notes on Chinese Literature (Shanghai, 1867), and scattered articles collected under the title Chinese Researches by A'exander Wylie (Shanghai, 1897).
SHANGHAI, a city in the Chinese province of Kiang-su.
The native city of Shanghai is situated in 31° 15' N., 121° 27' E.
The looms of Suchow and the tea plantations of Ngan-hui, together with the rice of this "garden of China," for many years before treaty days, supplied the Shanghai junks with their richest freight.
But though thus favourably situated as an emporium of trade, Shanghai did not attract the attention of foreign diplomatists until the outbreak of the War of 1841, when the inhabitants purchased protection from the attacks of Admiral Parker by the payment of a ransom of X145,000.
"At the end of the first year of its history as an open port Shanghai could count only 23 foreign residents and families, i consular flag, 11 merchants' houses, and 2 Protestant missionaries.
1 By degrees, however, the manifold advantages as a port of trade possessed by Shanghai attracted merchants of all nationalities; and from the banks of the Hwang-p'u arose handsome dwellinghouses, which have converted a reed-covered swamp into one of the finest cities in the East.
The number of foreigners, other than British, who took up their abode in the British settlement at Shanghai made it soon necessary to adopt some more catholic form of government than that supplied by a British consul who had control only over British subjects, and by common agreement a committee of residents, consisting of a chairman and six members, was elected by the renters of land for the purposes of general municipal administration.
Lay, of the British consular service, was in consequence appointed inspector of the Shanghai customs. The results of Mr Lay's administration proved so successful that when arranging the terms of the treaty of 1858 the Chinese willingly assented to the application of the same system to all the treaty ports, and Mr Lay was thereupon appointed inspector-general of maritime customs. On the retirement of Mr Lay in 1862 Sir Robert Hart was appointed to the post.
From 1856 to 1864 the trade of Shanghai vastly ncreased, and its prosperity culminated between 1860 and 1864, when the influx of Chinese into the foreign settlement in consequence of the advance E.
Both in 1860 and again in 1861 the rebels advanced to the walls of Shanghai, but were driven back by the British troops and volunteers, aided by the naval forces of England and France.
To Shanghai the successful operations of Gordon brought temporarily disastrous consequences.
The total burthen of foreign steamers which entered and cleared at Shanghai during 1884 was 3,145,242 tons, while in 1908 it was over 15,000,000 tons.
Shanghai, moreover, is not only a port of trade, but is rapidly becoming a large manufacturing and industrial centre.
Shanghai also contains three large establishments for docking, repairing and building ships.
Since the above date there have, consequently, been two municipalities at Shanghai, the French and the amalgamated British and American settlements, to which the original regulations continued to apply.
This movement has continued, and is now particularly noticeable in the cases of retired officials, many of whom have made Shanghai their home.
The total native population in the settlements by the census of 1895 was 286,753, and the estimated population of the native city was 125,000, making a total for all Shanghai of 411,753.
The magnitude of the foreign interests invested in Shanghai may be gathered from the following rough summary: Assessed value of land in settlements registered as foreign-owned £5,500,000; docks, wharves and other industrial public companies - market value of stock.
In 1911, when the revolution broke out prematurely at Wuchang, Dr. Sun was in England; but he hurried back to China and arrived at Shanghai on Christmas Eve, in time to be acclaimed as the originator of the Republican programme and elected Provisional President by the delegates to the National Convention assembled at Nanking.
During his tenancy of office the system adopted at Shanghai was applied to the other treaty ports, so that when on Mr Lay's resignation Mr Hart was appointed inspector-general of foreign customs, he found himself at the head of an organization which collected a revenue of upwards of eight million taels per annum at fourteen treaty ports.
Clark, Formosa (Shanghai, 1896); W.
Chevalier (Shanghai, 1900).
Of Shanghai, in 30° 20' 20" N., 120 0 7' 27" E.
It is connected with Shanghai by inland canal, which is navigable for boats drawing up to 4 ft.
The cities of Shanghai, Hangchow and Suchow form the three points of a triangle, each being connected with the other by canal, and trade is now open by steam between all three under the inland navigation rules.
There is also a large paper currency in the form of notes issued by the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, the Hong-Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the National Bank of China, Limited.
In the Nanking treaty, which was signed in the following year, Shanghai was included among the four new ports which were thrown open to trade.
Shanghai lies low, and, though the early winter is enjoyable, snow and ice being occasionally seen, the summer months are excessively hot.
As there are now fourteen treaty powers represented at Shanghai, there are consequently fourteen distinct courts sitting side by side, each administering the law of its own nationality.
The greatest anomaly, however, in respect of the government of Shanghai is the local municipal control.
The state has also lines from Seoul to the open ports, &c. Korea has regular steam communication with ports in Japan, the Gulf of Pechili, Shanghai, &c. Her own mercantile marine is considerable.
Wilkinson, The Korean Government: Constitutional Changes in Korea during the period 23rd July 1894 30th June 1896 (Shanghai, 1896); A.
In 1908 an international commission that met at Shanghai passed resolutions inviting all the states there represented to take measures for the gradual suppression of the manufacture, sale and distribution of opium, except for medicinal purposes.
Todhunter, Conflict of Studies (1873) William Whewell, Of a Liberal Education (London, 1845); Christopher Wordsworth, Scholae academicae (Cambridge, 1877); Etienne Zi (or Siu or Seu), Pratique des examens litteraires en Chine (Shanghai, 1894).
The town possesses few buildings of any note, but government house, the law-courts, the gaol, the lunatic asylum and the HongKong and Shanghai Bank are exceptions, as also is the cathedral of St Andrew.
(4) The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States, with 89 dioceses and missionary jurisdictions, including North Tokyo, Kyoto, Shanghai, Cape Palmas, and the independent dioceses of Hayti and Brazil.
Thus in 1907 at the Centenary Conference in Shanghai, when many topics were discussed centring in the question of the native Chinese Church, a general declaration of faith and purpose was adopted, which, after setting out the things held in common, proceeded, " We frankly recognize that we differ as to methods of administration and of church government; that some among us differ from others as to the administration of baptism; and that there are some differences as to the statement of the doctrine of predestination, or the election of grsce.