Shams al-Ma t adi Qabus, the generous ruler of Dailam, himself a poet and a scholar, with whom he had expected to find an asylum, was about that date (1012) starved to death by his own revolted soldiery.
Shams Addaula consented that he should be banished from the country.
His first spiritual instructor was Sayyid Burhan-uddin Husaini of Tirmidh, one of his father's disciples, and, later on, the wandering Stiff Shams-uddin of Tabriz, who soon acquired a most powerful influence over Jalal-uddin.
Shams-uddin's aggressive character roused the people of Iconium against him, and during a riot in which Jalal-uddin's eldest son, 'Ala-uddin, was killed, he was arrested and probably executed; at least he was no more seen.
Jalal-uddin's life is fully described in Shams-uddin Ahmed Aflaki's Manakib-ul `arifin (written between A.D.
Selections from Jalal-uddin's diwan (of ten styled Diwan-i-Shams-i-Tabriz) are translated in German verse by V.
He died in 1504 and his direct descendants held the sultanate of Berar until 1561, when Burhan Imad Shah was deposed by his minister Tufal Khan, who assumed the kingship. This gave a pretext for the intervention of Murtaza Nizam Shah of Ahmednagar, who in 1572 invaded Berar, imprisoned and put to death Tufal Khan, his son Shams-ul-Mulk, and the ex-king Burhan, and annexed Berar to his own dominions.
Sun-worship seems to have been peculiar to the Sabaeans and Hamdanites; and, if the Sabis of Sabota (Pliny) was in fact the sun deity Shams, this must be ascribed to Sabaean influence.
The Sabaean Shams was a goddess, while the chief divinity of the Minaeans was the god `Athtar, -a male figure, worshipped under several forms, of which the commonest are the Eastern `Athtar and `Athtar Dhu Kabd.
Zobair, but their leader was defeated in a battle near Am Shams (December 684) by Merwgn b.
The general condemnation of " shams " and cant had, of course, particular applications, though he left them to be inferred by his readers.
His successors were Zahir addaula (ud-daula, ed-dowleh) Abu Mansur Washmagir (935967), Bistun (967976), Shams al Maali Qabus (97&1o12), Falak al Maali Manushahr (1012-1029), Anushirw~n (1029-1042).
His first minister Shams ud-din was suspected of having poisoned Abagha, and was soon put to death.
It had a remarkable record in the exposure of shams and organized impostures, especially frauds on the charitable.
Shams and delusions are esteemed for soundest truths, while reality is fabulous.