The last member of it, Simon the Just (either Simon I., who died about 300 B.C., or Simon II., who died about 200 B.C.), was the first of the next series, called Elders, represented in the tradition by pairs of teachers, ending with Hillel and Shammai about the beginning of the Christian era.
Many if not all of the professed rabbis had travelled outside Palestine: some were even members of the dispersion, like Hillel the Babylonian, who with Shammai forms the second of the pairs.
He put an end to the division which had arisen between the spiritual leaders of Palestinian Judaism by the separation of the scribes into the two schools called respectively after Hillel and Shammai, and took care to enforce his own authority as the president of the chief legal assembly of Judaism with energy and often with severity.
SHAMMAI, a Jewish scribe of the time of King Herod, whom tradition almost invariably couples with Hillel, with whom he stood in striking contrast, not merely in legal-religious decisions and discussions, but also in character and temperament.
The last admonition is characteristic, as Shammai was choleric and brusque.
The opposition between Shammai and Hillel was perpetuated by their respective schools, till, under Gamaliel II., the strife was decided at Jabneh in favour of the school of Hillel.
The tendency of his theory and practice in matters pertaining to the Law is evidenced by the fact that in general he advanced milder and more lenient views in opposition to his colleague Shammai, a contrast which after the death of the two masters, but not until after the destruction of the Temple, was maintained in the strife kept up between the two schools named the House of Hillel and the House of Shammai.
Hillel and Shammai, the contemporaries of Herod, were mentioned without any title.
Of later teachers regarding their predecessors, on the schools of Hillel and Shammai, `Agiba, &c., important for the problem of the literary growth of the Mishnah.
The last culminate in Hillel (q.v.) and Shammai, the founders of two great rival schools, and to this famous pair the work 2 See W.
The school of Shammai disallows it; but the school of Hillel allows it," &c. In the Gemara, the decisions of the Mishnah are not only discussed, explained or developed, but all kinds of additional matter are suggested by them.
While the school of Shammai advised only Ps.