So too the autohypnotic trance of the magician or shaman is regarded as due to his visit to distant regions or the nether world, of which he brings back an account.
On the other hand, the shaman or priest (Tungus saman, Altain Turk ka y na, cf.
They are chiefly hunters, passionately loving their taiga, or wild forests, and have maintained their Shaman religion and tribal organization into suoks.
Trance speaking, on the other hand, may be found in any stage of culture and there is no doubt that in many cases the procedure of the magician or shaman induces a state of autohypnotism; at a higher stage these utterances are termed oracles and are believed :o be the result of inspiration.
All the world over it is held that such people can assume the form of animals; sometimes the power of the shaman is held to depend on his being able to summon his familiar; among the Ostiaks the shaman's coat was covered with representations of birds and beasts; two bear's claws were on his hands; his wand was covered with mouse-skin; when he wished to divine he beat his drum till a black bird appeared and perched on his hut; then the shaman swooned, the bird vanished, and the divination could begin.
Matthews, "The Prayer of a Navajo Shaman," in American Anthropologist, i.; idem, "The Mountain Chant; a Navajo Ceremony," in Fifth Report of Bureau of American Ethnology; J.