Here are the ruins of a palace of the native khans, built in the 16th century; the mosques of the Persian shahs, built in 1078 and now converted into an arsenal; nearer the sea the "maidens' tower," transformed into a lighthouse; and not far from it remains of ancient walls projecting above the sea, and showing traces of Arabic architecture of the 9th and 10th centuries.
On the side of Persia too, where the decisive battle of Shurur (1502) had raised to power Ismail, the first of the modern line of shahs, danger threatened the sultan, and the latter years of his reign were troubled by the spread, under the influence of the new Persian power, of the Shiite doctrine in Kurdistan and Asia Minor.
Afterwards the shahs of Khwarizm took this province.'
The Saddozai clan of the Popalzai Duranis furnished the first independent shahs of the Durani dynasty (A.D.
The line of the shahs was overthrown in the third generation.
Flowers are abundant, but it is only sinc~ ~hs h~o-in,,~no of Nssr M cm Shahs reign (18&81.
Principal governorships were conferred upon the shahs sons, brothers, uncles and other near relatives, but now many of them are held by men who have little if any connection with the royal family.
The shahs civil list amounts to 500,000 tomans (~ioo,ooo).
The departments that had a vizir at their head were the following: court, ceremonies, shahs secretarial department, interior, correspondence between court and governors, revenue accounts and budget, finance, treasury, outstanding accounts, foreign affairs, war, army accounts, military stores, arsenals, justice, commerce, mines and industries, agriculture and Crown domains, Crown buildings, public works, public instruction, telegraphs, posts, mint, religious endowments and pensions, customs, press.
At the beginning of Nnlrud-Din Shahs reign, a public school on the lines of a French lyce was opened in Teheran, principally with the object of educating officers for the army, but also of introducing a knowledge of Western.
The shahs representatives for the administration of justice are the governors and other officers already mentioned.
In 1889, after Nasru d-Din Shahs return from his third visit to Europe, the council of state was instructed to compile a code of law for the regulation of justice.
The shahs visit to Europe in the same year cost the exchequer about 180,000.
16, &c); exactly as is the case to-day in the shahs treasure-chamber (Curzon, Persia, ii.
Meanwhile an independent dynasty was formed about 1136 in Azerbaijan by the governors (atabegs) appointed by the Seljuks; this dynasty was overthrown by the Khwarizm shahs in 1225.
The fourth, Sad, became tributary to the Khwarizm shahs in, i9~, and the fifth acknowledged allegiance to the Mongol Ogotai and received the title Kutbegh K han.
Before passing on to the Mongol conquerors of Persia it is necessary briefly to notice the shahs of Khwarizm, who have Khwarizm frequently been mentioned as overthrowing th~ininor dynasties which arose with the decay of the Stiljuks.
In 1231 the last of his house, Jelal ud-din (Jalaluddin) Mangbarti, or Mango-berti, was banished, and thus the empire of the Kliwarizm shahs, which for a brief period had included practically all the lands conquered by the Seljuks, passed away.
In the later years of the 12th century the: Mongols began their westward march and, after the conquest of the ancient Mongols kingdom of the Kajakitai, reached the borders of the territory of the Khwarizm shahs, which was at once overwhelmed.
Shahs own hands.
And the actual seizure of Herat, necessitating the recovery of that city and a march to Kandahar (1536); the temporary loss of Kandahar in the following year (1537), when the governor ceded it to Prince Kamran, son of Babar; the hospitable reception accorded to the Indian emperor Humayun (1543); the rebellion of the shahs brother next in age, Ilkhas, who, by his alliance with the sultan, brought on a war with Turkey (1548);i and finally a fresh expedition to Georgia, followed by a revengeful incursion which resulted in the enforced bondage of thousands of the inhabitants (1552).
The shahs grandmother, by feigning herself sick and dependent upon wine only for cure, obtained reversal of the edict.
At this time Kandahar had been for sixty years uninterruptedly in the shahs possession.
Nadirs anger and indignation had been great at this weak proceeding; indeed, he had made it the ostensible cause of the shahs deposition.
Khorasan could hardly be called an integral part of the shahs kingdom so long as it was under Operations even the nominal rule of the blind grandson of in Nadir.
It is not shown what was the understood boundary between the two countries at this particular period; but Watson states that on the shahs departure he had received the submission.
General whose possession of the crown jewels enabled him, after the defeat of his army at Kazvin, to secure his personal safety and obtain a government; of Hosain Kuli Khan) the shahs brother, which was compromised by the mothers intervention; and of Mahommed, son of Zaki Khan, Zend, who was defeated on more than one occasion in battle, and fled into Turkish territory.
Among the more notable occurrences which followed were a three days battle, fought near Echmiadzin, between the crown prince, Abbas Mirza, and General Zizianov, in which the Persians suffered much from the enemys artillery, but would not admit they were defeated; unsuccessful attempts on the part of the Russian commander to get possession of Erivan; and a surprise, in camp, of the shahs forces, which caused them to disperse, and necessitated the kings own presence with reinforcements.
The Persian~ then carried all before them; and the hereditary chiefs of Shirvan, Sheki and Baku returned from exile to co-operate with the shahs general in the south.
1804 and 1805, to allow the Russians to Turke make free use of the south-eastern coasts of the Black Sea, to facilitate operations against the shahs troops; and there had been a passage of arms betweenthe kings eldest son, Mahommed Au Mirza, and Suleiman Pasha, son-in-law of the governor-generat of Bagdad, which is locally credited as a battle won by the former.
The revolt of Nadir Mirza had, as before explained, drawn the shahs attention to Khorasan in the early part of his reign; but, although quiet had for the moment been restored at Meshed by the presence of the royal camp, fresh grounds of complaint were urged against the rash but powerless prince, and recourse was had to extreme measures.
It does not appear that Nadir Mirzas cause was ever seriously espoused by the Afghans nor that Fath Au Shahs claim to Meshed, as belonging to the Persian crown, was actively resisted.
Since Fath Au Shahs accession he and his brother Mahmud had been, as it were, under Persian protection.
It was in Fath Ali Shahs reign that Henry Martyn was in Persia, and completed his able translation of the New Testament into the language of that country.
Fresh provocation had, moreover, been given to the shahs government by the rash and incapable Kamran.
Colonel Farrant, then charg d affaires on shh the part of the British government, in the absence of - a Colonel Sheil, who had succeeded Sir John MNeill, had, in anticipation of the shahs decease and consequent trouhle, sent a messenger to summon him instantly to Teheran.
Some four months prior to the Mahommed Shahs decease orasan.
Treachery may have had to do with the result, for when the shahs troops entered the holy city the ealar sought refuge in the mosque of Imam Riza, and was forcibly expelled.
He was the son of a cook 0f Bahram Mirza, Mahommed Shahs brother, and he had filled high and important offices of state and amassed much wealth when he was 1~ih1 of made by the young shah Nasru d-Din, on his accession, MirzaTakl.
This chief soon entered upon a series of intrigues in the Persian interests, and, among other acts offensive to Great Britain, suffered one Abbas Kuli, who had, under guise of friendship, betrayed the cause of the salar at Meshed, to occupy the citadel of Herat, and again place a detachment of the shahs troops in Ghurian.
There were few troubles in the country when the news of the shahs death became known.
The Imperial Bank of Persia, which had already advanced a large sum of money, and thereby greatly facilitated the shahs early departure from Tabriz and enabled the grand vizier at Teheran to carry on the government, started buying up the copper coinage at all its branches and agencies.
The well-intentioned abolition of the tax on meat also had not the desired result, for by a system of cornering the price of meat rose to more than it In the autumn of 1896 the grand vizier (Amin-es-Sultan) encountered much hostility from some members of the shahs Mi I t riai entourage and various high personages.
In the beginning of AbortIve 1898 the shahs medical advisers strongly recommended Negotiatlonsa cure of mineral waters in Germany or France, and for British as his departure from Persia without paying the arrears to the army and to thousands of functionaries, or providing a sufficient sum for carrying on the government during his absence, would have created grave discontent, serious negotiations for a loan were entered upon.
It was estimated that 1,000,000 would be required to pay all debts, including the balance of the 1892 loan, and leave a surplus sufficient for carrying on the government until the shahs return.
Further negotiations ensued, and the shahs visit to Europe was abandoned.
The affairs of State Shahs during his absence were entrusted to a council of Visits to ministers, under the presidency of his second son, Europe, Malik Mansur Mirza, Shua-es-Sultaneh, who had made 1909, 1902.
Oii the 2nd of August an anarchist made an attempt upon the shahs life in Paris.
The Revolution.On the 12th of November the shah visited the Majlis, and repeated his pledge, but during December a riot in Teheran developed into a political crisis, in which the shahs troops were employed against the civil population.
Mahommed Ali consented, but withdrew from Teheran; and on his departure the royal bodyguard of so-called Cossacks Persian soldiers officered by Russians in the shahs serviceat once came into conflict with the Nationalists.