It is now known, however, that" Siam "or" Sayam "is one of the most ancient names of the country, and that at least a thousand years ago it was in common use, such titles as Swankalok-Sukhotai, Shahr-i-nao, Dwarapuri, Ayuthia, the last sometimes corrupted to" Judea,"by which the kingdom has been known at various periods of its history, being no more than the names of the different capital cities whose rulers in turn brought the land under their sway.
Meanwhile the ancient state of Lavo (Lopburi), with its capital at Sano (Sornau or Shahr-i-nao), at one time feudatory to Swankalok-Sukhotai, remained the last stronghold of the Khmer, although even here' the race was much modified by Lao-Tai blood; but presently Sano also was attacked, and its fall completed the ascendancy of the Siamese (Thai) throughout the country.
Shahr-i-nau, long after Sano had disappeared - Yule's Marco Polo, ii.
It consists of two towns, Kuhna Shahr or " old city," and Yangi Shahr or " new city," about five miles apart, and separated from one another by the Kyzyl Su, a tributary of the Tarim river.
Kuhna Shahr is a small fortified city on high ground overlooking the river Tuman.
This city - Aski Shahr (Old Town) as it is now called - was destroyed in 1514 by Mirza Ababakar (Abubekr) on the approach of Sultan Said Khan's army.
The Yangi Shahr of Kashgar is, as its name implies, modern, having been built in 1838.
In the time of the Chinese, before Yakub Beg's sway, Yangi Shahr held a garrison of six thousand men, and was the residence of the amban or governor.
The population of Kashgar has been recently estimated at 60,000 in the Kuhna Shahr and only 2000 in the Yangi Shahr.
A revolt in 1829 under Mahommed Ali Khan and Yusuf, brother of Jahanghir, was more successful, and resulted in the concession of several important trade privileges to the Mahommedans of the district of Alty Shahr (the " six cities "), as it was then named.
Buzurg Khan delivered himself up to indolence and debauchery, but Yakub Beg, with singular energy and perseverance, made himself master of Yangi Shahr, Yangi-Hissar, Yarkand and other towns, and eventually became sole master of the country, Buzurg Khan proving himself totally unfitted for the post of ruler.
MT.) Timur (Timur i Leng, the lame Timur), commonly known as Tamerlane, the renowned Oriental conqueror, was born in 1336 at Kesh, better known as Shahr-i-Sabz, "the green city," situated some 50 m.
NUSRETABAD, the capital of Persian Seistan, so called after Nusret el Mulk, a former deputy governor of Seistan; when built, c. 1870, it was first called Nasirabad in honour of Nasr-uddin Shah; other names, used locally, are Shahr (town) i Seistan, Shahr i Nassiriyeh, or simply Shahr, the town.
From Zari, on the road to Balkh by the Balkhab, at the east end of the Sokhtagi valley; Shahr-i-Babar, about 45 m.
Above Shahr-i-Babar, are all fortified sites of about the same age as the relics at Bamian.
Even many of the original Tatar, Mongol and other nomad tribes (ilat), instead of leading their former roving and unsettled life of the sahara-nishin (dwellers in the desert), are settled and peaceful shahr-nishin (dwellers in towns).