The Mahrattas at this time had got possession of the person of the Mogul emperor, Shah Alam, from whom Clive obtained the grant of Bengal in 1765, and to whom he assigned in return the districts of Allahabad and Kora and a tribute of 30o,000.
About two centuries afterwards, in the course of the struggle between the Sikhs and the Mahommedans, Ahmad Shah Durani routed the Sikhs at the great battle of Panipat, and on his homeward march he destroyed the town of Amritsar, blew up the temple with gunpowder, filled in the sacred tank with mud, and defiled the holy place by the slaughter of cows.
But when Ahmad Shah returned to Kabul the Sikhs rose once more and re-established their religion.
Aurangzeb's death and the invasion of Nadir Shah led to a triple alliance among the three leading chiefs, which internal jealousy so weakened that the Mahrattas, having been called in by the Rahtors to aid them, took possession of Ajmere about 1756; thenceforward Rajputana became involved in the general disorganization of India.
In 1579 Christopher Burroughs built a ship at Nizhniy Novgorod and traded across the Caspian to Baku; and in 1598 Sir Anthony and Robert Shirley arrived in Persia, and Robert was afterwards sent by the shah to Europe as his ambassador.
He went thence to China, returned to Lhasa, and was in India in time to be an eye-witness of the sack of Delhi by Nadir Shah in 1737.
The quadrangle is larger than that of Shah Abbas; and at the eastern side is an immense blue dome, out of which quantities of grass were growing, the place being too sacred to be disturbed.
" college of two doors," built in 1439 by Shah Rukh, and some fine caravanserais, two dating from 1680.
3 Gauhar Shad was the wife of Shah Rukh (1404-1447), and was murdered by that monarch's successor Abu Said, August I, 1457.
He received considerable aid from Shah Ismael of Persia, and in 1511 made a triumphal entry into Samarkand.
In 1349 a great part of Maimand and of three little villages belonging to it became wakf (pious endowment) of the shrine at Shiraz of Mir Ahmed, surnamed Shah Chiragh, a son of Musa Kazim, the seventh imam of the Shiahs, and the remainder of the Maimand grounds was given to the shrine by Mir Habbib Ullah Sharifi and by Shah Ismail in 1504; the administration of the Maimand property as well as the guardianship of the shrine is still with the descendants of Mir Habbib Ullah.
The population is about 6000, comprising descendants of some Georgians introduced by Shah Abbas I.
The place was without importance until 1612, when Shah Abbas began building and laying out the palaces and gardens in the neighbourhood now collectively known as Bagh i Shah (the garden of the shah).
The principal palace was the Chehel Situn (forty pillars), destroyed by the Afghans in 1723, and, although rebuilt by Nadir Shah in 1731, already in ruins in 1743.
They never subjugated the south, but the empire which they founded in the north was for about two centuries, under such rulers as Akbar and Shah Jehan, one of the most brilliant which Asia has seen.
After 1707 it began to decline: the governors became independent: a powerful Mahratta confederacy arose in central India; Nadir Shah of Persia sacked Delhi; and Ahmed Shah made repeated invasions.
It attained a certain dignity and unity under Abbas Shah (1585-1628), but in later times was distracted and disorganized by Afghan invasions.
Ahmed Shah Abdali burst upon India from Afghanistan.
These two sets of parallel ranges are linked together transversely by the cross-ridges of Bezobdal, Pambak, Shah-dagh and Gok-cha.
Many of his coins bear the Nandi bull (Siva's emblem), and the king's name is preceded by the title sahi (shah), which had previously been used by the Kushan dynasty.
Peace and security being established in his dominions, he convoked an assembly of the states and declared his son Malik Shah his heir and successor.
The Lal-bagh palace was commenced by Azam Shah, the third son of the emperor Aurangzeb.
On the death of Malik Shah, the last of the great Seljukian emperors (1092), the empire dissolved.
The great mosque at Isfahan, built by Shah Abbas the Great (1585-1629), has one great court (225 ft.
He was finally overthrown and killed by Hoshang Shah, king of Malwa.
The shah, or ruler of these people, went out to meet Alexander and welcome him to their country.
"Very well, then," said the shah, "stay with me a little while and observe what you can."
While the shah and the king were talking, two countrymen came in.
The shah sat silent for a while, as if in thought.
The shah turned to the second man: "Have you a daughter?"
"You have judged wisely and rightly," said he to the shah, "but in my own country we should have done differently."
"Then," said the shah, "it must be that the sun shines and the rain falls for the sake of these poor beasts; for men so unjust do not deserve such blessings."