The sprat, pilchard or sardine and shad are species of the same genus.
3 Gauhar Shad was the wife of Shah Rukh (1404-1447), and was murdered by that monarch's successor Abu Said, August I, 1457.
The State Geological and Economic Survey has made a careful study of the fishes of North Carolina, of the shad fisheries, of oyster culture, and of the development of terrapin.
The following table of the Shad Ayyub (both generals in the army of the Atabegs of Mosul).
The king fish and tarpon are hunted for sport, while mullet, shad, redsnappers, pompano, trout, sheepshead and Spanish mackerel are of great economic value.
The kinds of greatest economic value are sturgeon, shad, salmon, lampreys, eels, pike and whiting.
The fisheries, chiefly oyster, sturgeon and shad, yield an annual product valued at about $250,000.
It is allied to the European species of shad and pilchard, and, like the latter, approaches the coast in immense shoals, which are found throughout the year in some part of the littoral waters between Maine and Florida, the northern shoals retiring into deeper water or to more southern latitudes with the approach of cold weather.
The most valuable catches of food fish in 1904 were those of bluefish ($556,527), squeteague ($212,623), flounders ($67,159), eels ($53,832), cod ($52,710), scup ($48,068) and shad ($36,826).
The shad fishery is mainly in the lower waters of the Hudson river, and the catch diminished so rapidly from 1901 that in 1904 it was only about one-eighth of the average for the decade from 1890 to 1900.
The waters of the Chesapeake Bay are especially rich in oysters and crabs, and there, also, shad, alewives, " striped " (commonly called " rock ") bass, menhaden, white perch and weak-fish (" sea-trout ") occur in large numbers.
Shad, to the number of 3,111,181 and valued at $120,602, were caught during 1901.
Sprats are very often confounded with young herrings, which they much resemble, but can always be distinguished by the following characters: they do not possess any teeth on the palate (vomer), like herrings; their gill-covers are smooth, without the radiating striae which are found in the shad and the pilchard; the anal fin consists of .from seventeen to twenty rays, and the lateral line of forty-seven or forty-eight scales.
It includes the Kuba plain on the north-east slope of the Caucasus; the eastern extremity of that range from the Shad-dagh (13,960 ft.) and the Bazardyuz (14,727 ft.) to the Caspian, where it terminates in the Apsheron peninsula; the steppes of the lower Kura and Aras on the south of the Caucasus, and a narrow coast-belt between the Anti-Caucasus and the Caspian.
Pike-perch and a few blue pike are taken in the Susquehanna, where shad are no longer plentiful since work was begun on McCall's Ferry dam, and in 1908 the entire catch for the river was valued at about $20,000, but in the Delaware there are valuable shad 'and herring fisheries.
The carp and salmon tribes are the most abundant; after them rank the pike, the eel, the shad, the roach, the perch and the lamprey.
In the paintings we see gardens irrigated by handbuckets and shad ufs; the latter (buckets hung on a lever-pole) were probably the usual means of raising water for the fields in ancient times, and still are common in Egypt and Nubia, although water-wheels have been known.
Shad and striped bass are both very abundant and cheap. Black bass, flounders, terrapin, sea-turtles, perch, turbot, sole and catfish are also common.
Next in importance were the catches of menhaden, shad, clams, squeteague and alewives; while minor catches were made of crabs, croaker, bluefish, butterfish, catfish, perch and spotted and striped bass.
The artificially propagated eggs of the shad from the eastern rivers of the United States were planted in those of California and the Mississippi, where the species did not naturally occur.
SHAD, the name given to certain migratory species of herrings (Clupea), which are distinguished from the herrings proper by the total absence of teeth in the jaws.
Two species occur in Europe, much resembling each other - one commonly called allis shad (Clupea alosa or Alosa vulgaris), and the other known as twaite shad(Clupea finta or Alosa finta).
So closely allied are these two fishes that their distinctness can be proved only by an examination of the gill-apparatus, the allis shad having from sixty to eighty very fine and long gill-rakers along the concave edge of the first branchial arch, whilst the twaite shad possesses from twenty-one to twenty-seven stout and stiff gill-rakers only.
They inhabit the coasts of temperate Europe, the twaite shad being more numerous in the Mediterranean.
While they are in salt water they live singly or in very small companies, but during May (the twaite shad some weeks later) they congregate, and in great numbers ascend large rivers, such as the Severn (and formerly the Thames), the Seine, the Rhine, the Nile, &c., in order to deposit their spawn.
In the Elbe the twaite shad spawns below Hamburg, the allis shad above Dresden.
The allis shad is caught at a size from 15 to 24 in., and is better flavoured than the twaite shad, which is generally smaller.
Other, but closely allied species, occur on the Atlantic coasts of North America, all surpassing the European species in importance as food-fishes and economic value, viz., the American shad (Clupea sapidissima), the gaspereau or ale-wife (C. mattowocca or vernalis), and the menhaden (C. menhaden).
The waters of the coast and bays abound in shad, menhaden, bluefish, weak-fish (squeteague), clams and oysters.
Until 1901 New Jersey's fisheries were more important than those of any other state in the Middle or South Atlantic groups; but after that date, owing to a decrease in the catch of bluefish, shad, clams and oysters, the annual catch of New York and Virginia became more valuable.
In the other counties along the Delaware shad is the chief product, and these counties furnish nearly nine-tenths of the catch.
A small amount of shad is taken also in the Hudson river.
The value of the shad fisheries has greatly declined since.
Maine markets more clams than any other state in the Union, and the catches of cod, hake, haddock, smelt, mackerel, swordfish, shad, pollock, cusk, salmon, alewives, eels and halibut are of importance.
Some catfish, shad, smelt, halibut, herring, perch, sturgeon, flounders, oysters, clams, crabs and crawfish are also obtained from Oregon waters.
In the bays and lower courses of the rivers are porpoises, whiting, sea bass, channel bass, shad, sturgeon, mullet, drum, bluefish, snappers, sheepshead, weakfish or squeteague, groupers, and several other kinds of fish.
The amount and value of other catches in 1902 were as follows: whiting, 606,300 lb ($30,118); sea bass, 7 0 9,5 5 lb ($27,364); shad, 434,133 lb ($20,782); clam, 28,133 bush.
Among the city's manufactures are lumber, foundry and machine-shop products, naval stores and oars; and there are shad and sturgeon fisheries.
The Douro yields an abundance of fish, especially trout, shad and lampreys.
Yarrell proved conclusively that Donovan's opinion was founded upon an error; unfortunately he contented himself with comparing whitebait with the shad only, and in the end adopted the opinion of the Thames fishermen, whose interest it was to represent it as a distinct adult form; thus the whitebait is introduced into Yarrell's History of British Fishes (1836) as Clupea alba.
Here begins the mosque of Gauhar Shad.'
Large numbers of shad, blue fish, weak fish (squeteague), alewives, Spanish mackerel, perch, bass, croakers (Micropogon undulatus), mullet, menhaden, oysters and clams are caught in the sounds, in the lower courses of the rivers flowing into them, or in the neighbouring waters of the sea.
The fisheries are chiefly of shad, oysters, mullet, alewives, clams, black bass, menhaden, croakers and bluefish.
Mackerel, cod, pollack and flat-fishes are the kinds most frequently attacked by them in the sea; of river-fish the migratory Salmonidae and the shad are sometimes found with the marks of the teeth of the lamprey, or with the fish actually attached to them.