The cost of intra-urban railways depends not only on the type of construction, but more especially upon local conditions, such as the nature of the soil, the presence of subsurface structures, like sewers, water and gas mains, electric conduits, &c.; the necessity of permanent underpinning or temporary supporting of house foundations, the cost of acquiring land passed under or over when street lines are not followed, and, in the case of elevated railways, the cost of acquiring easements of light, air and access, which the courts have held are vested in the abutting property.
The most difficult section - namely, that under Cannon Street - where the abutting buildings had to be underpinned, and a very dense traffic maintained during construction, while a network of sewers and mains was readjusted, cost at the rate of about r,000,000 a mile.
The chief objects for which the city debt was created were in 1907, in millions of dollars: highways, 24.07, parks, 16.29, drainage and sewers, 15.05, rapid transit, 13.57 and water-works, 4.53.
Mitted to them - as the construction of roads, the cleansing of the sewers and the maintenance of the aqueducts.
Without resorting to this exaggeration, Mommsen can speak with perfect truth of the " enormous space occupied by the burial vaults of Christian Rome, not surpassed even by the cloacae or sewers of Republican Rome," but the data are too vague to warrant any attempt to define their dimensions.
These and other tributary streams have been covered in and built over (in some cases serving as sewers), but it is possible to trace their valleys at various points by the fall and rise of streets crossing them, and their names survive, as will be seen, in various modern applications.
With a further view to uniformity it has certain powers of supervision and control over local authorities, and can make by-laws respecting construction of local sewers, sanitary conveniences, offensive trades, slaughter-houses and dairies,, and prevention of nuisances outside the jurisdiction of local authorities.
The first act providing for a commission of sewers in London dates from 1531.
A system of main drainage was inaugurated by the Commissioners of Sewers in 1849, but their work proceeded very slowly.
The length of sewers in the main system is about 288 m., and their construction has cost about eight millions.
The sanitary authorities are concerned only with the supervision of house drainage, and the construction and maintenance of local sewers discharging into the main system.
The Metropolitan Board of Works, and the commissioners of sewers in the City, began experiments with electric light.
There were two bodies having jurisdiction over the whole metropolis except the City, namely, the officers appointed under the Metropolitan Building Act of 1844, and the Metropolitan Commissioners of Sewers, appointed under the Commissioners of Sewers Act 1848.
Further the area of the metropolis for local government purposes was for the first time defined, being the same as that adopted in the Commissioners of Sewers Act, which had been taken from the area of the weekly bills of mortality.
The Metropolitan Board of Works was also given certain powers of supervision over the vestries and district boards, and superseded the commissioners of sewers as authority for main drainage.
Again, with regard to rates, there were in all cases three different rates leviable in each parish-the poor rate, the general rate and the sewers rate-whilst in many parishes in addition there was a separate lighting rate.
From the sewers rate and lighting rate, land, as opposed to buildings, was entitled to certain exemptions.
There are some remains of the ancient city walls of rectangular blocks of tufa on the southern side of the town, and some rock-cut sewers in the cliffs below them.
In 33 he was chosen aedile and signalized his tenure of office by effecting great improvements in the city of Rome, restoring and building aqueducts, enlarging and cleansing the sewers, and constructing baths and porticos, and laying out gardens.
All this time he was in hiding in cellars and sewers, where he was attacked by a horrible skin disease, tended only by the woman Simonne Evrard, who remained true to him.
This provides for taking water from the Ohio river at a point on the Kentucky side opposite the village of California, Ohio, and several miles above the discharge of the city sewers; for the carrying of the water by a gravity tunnel under the river to the Ohio side, the water being thence elevated by four great pumping engines, each having a daily capacity of 30,000,000 gallons, to settling basins, being then passed through filters of the American or mechanical type, and flowing thence by a gravity tunnel more than 4 m.
A village district is a portion of a town, including a village, which is set apart and organized for protection from fire, for lighting or sprinkling the streets, for providing a water-supply, for the construction and maintenance of sewers, and for police protection; to serve these interests three commissioners, a moderator, a clerk, a treasurer and such other officers as the voters of the district may deem necessary are chosen, each for a term of one year.
An extensive system of sewers was constructed by the City Improvements Co., an English corporation, which initiated the work in 1853; and a separate system of rain-water drains.
The Leicester system is used because the greater part of the sewers are below sea-level, and it is necessary to use powerful pumps.
Of sewers on the single channel principle, with collectors discharging into the Vettabia, a tributary of the Lambro.
The board of public works, composed of engineers, controls streets, sewers, buildings and public improvements.
He laid out the Circus Maximus, instituted the "great" games, built the great sewers (cloacae), and began the construction of the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol.
But open sewers, public pumps, cobble-paved roads, open market-places and overcrowded subterranean dwellings are now abolished.
The drainage-system consists of underground sewers, which are discharged by a pumping-station into a natural depression to the eastward, called the Salt Lake.
Before that time there was practically no sanitary authority outside the urban district, for although the vestry of a parish had in some cases power to make sewers and had also some other sanitary powers, there was no authority for such a district as now corresponds to a rural district.
Thus a joint sewerage board would generally be invested by the order with all the powers of a district council relating to the provision and control of sewers and the disposal of sewage.
The old sewers were found quite inadequate to carry off the large increase of water, and besides they all led directly into the bay, causing a terrible odour and rendering the water near the town unwholesome for bathing.
The department of public safety controls the bureaus of police, detectives, fire, health, electricity and building inspection; the department of public works controls bureaus of surveys, construction, highways and sewers, city property, water, assessment of water rents, parks, deed registry, bridges and light.
The district council are required to cause to be made such sewers as may be necessary for effectually draining their district.
All sewers, whether made by the council, by their predecessors, or by private persons, vest in the district council, that is to say, become their property, with some exceptions, of which the principal is sewers made by a person for his own profit.
The result has been that district councils frequently find themselves in the position of being responsible for the repair and condition of drains which, by reason of having been laid for more than one house, are sewers vested in and repairable by them.
Where the council do supply water, they have the same powers of carrying mains under streets or through private lands as they have with respect to the laying of sewers, as already mentioned.
Special expenses include the expenses of the construction and maintenance and cleansing of sewers, providing water-supply, and all other expenses incurred or payable in respect of a parish or contributory place within the district determined by order of the Local Government Board to be special expenses.
The commissioners derive their authority from the Sewers Commission Acts, which date from the time of Henry VIII., from the Land Drainage Act 1861, and from various local acts.
It is unnecessary, however, to consider in any detail the powers exercised by commissioners of sewers in the few areas under their control.