For the drainage and sewerage of the city a subterranean river whose source and mouth are unknown is utilized.
There is a modern system of drainage for the towns, and all sewerage has been intercepted from the Grand Harbour.
The sewerage system and conditions of house sanitation were found extremely inadequate when the American army occupied the city in 1899.
District for certain special purposes such as water-supply, sewerage or the like.
Deep in the sub-soil, is fairly good; one of the towers of the Castello Sforzesco is used as a distributing centre, while the sewerage system consists of 48 m.
The metropolitan water district (1895) included in 1908 Boston and seventeen cities or townships in its environs; the metropolitan sewerage district (1889) twenty four; the park service (1893) thirty-nine.
There is, of course, no sewerage system, the surfaces of the streets serving that purpose, and what garbage and refuse is not consumed by the dog scavengers washes down into the Tigris at the same place from which the water for drinking is drawn.
The gas and electric lighting is in the hands of private firms. The administration of the park, the city improvements and the water and sewerage departments have been handed over to boards and trusts.
A waterborne sewerage system began to be introduced in 1906.
The city is also one of the filthiest in the East, as there are no means of drainage or sewerage, and garbage of every description lies in heaps in the open streets.
The constitution limits the indebtedness of a county to 5% of the value of its taxable property and that of a city, town or school district to 3%, except that the question may be submitted to a vote of the tax-payers affected when it is deemed necessary to construct a sewerage system or procure a water supply.
For several years prior to 1902 Harrisburg suffered much from impure water, a bad sewerage system, and poorly paved and dirty streets.
The erection of houses has involved the construction of new roads, and new water and sewerage schemes.
The river was enclosed between stone embankments; sewerage and pure water were supplied, gas and electric light installed; and horse or electric tramways laid down in the principal thoroughfares, which were paved with granite or wood.
Owing to this, as well as to the entire lack of proper sanitary customs among the people, the horrible condition of sewerage and the prevalence of yellow fever (first brought to Havana, it is thought, in 1761, from Vera Cruz), the reputation of the city as regards health was long very bad.
The American military authorities found that the most extraordinary measures for cleansing the city - involving repeated house-to-house inspection, enforced cleanliness, improved drainage and sewerage, the destruction of various public buildings, and thorough cleansing of the streets - although decidedly effective in reducing the general death-rate of the city (average, 1890-1899, 45.83; 1900, 24.40; 1901, 22.11; 1902, 20.63; general death-rate of U.S. soldiers in 1898, 6794; in 1901-1902, 7.00), apparently did not affect yellow fever at all.
The constitution also forbids the creation of a state debt in excess of i% of the assessed value of the taxable property in the state; of a county debt in excess of 2 of the assessed value of the taxable property in the county; or of a municipal debt for any other purpose than obtaining a water supply in excess of unless for building sewerage, when a debt of 4% may be authorized.
For the last, see Sewerage; the following article being devoted to the agricultural aspects of this subject.
They may hear complaints by a parish council that a district council has failed to provide sufficient sewerage or water-supply, or has failed to enforce the provisions of the Public Health Acts in their district, and on such complaint they may transfer to themselves and exercise the powers of the defaulting council, or they may appoint a person to perform those duties.
Thus a joint sewerage board would generally be invested by the order with all the powers of a district council relating to the provision and control of sewers and the disposal of sewage.
For the most part it has reference only to what is called a special drainage district, that is to say, a district formed out of one or more parishes or parts of parishes for the purpose of the provision of a common water-supply, or scheme of sewerage, or the like, and in the event of such a district including part only of a parish, the remaining portion would, so far as the special expenses for which the district was created are concerned, be a separate contributory place.
This board is required to visit each of the institutions at least once a year to ascertain its condition and needs, and all proposed appropriations for their support, plans of buildings, proposed systems of sewerage, ventilation and heating must be submitted to it.