WILLIAM HENRY SEWARD (1801-1872), American statesman, was born on the 16th of May 1801 in the village of Florida, Orange county, New York.
By 1833 the Anti-Masonic movement had run its course, and Seward allied himself with the other opponents of the Jackson Democrats, becoming a Whig.
As governor, Seward favoured a continuance of works of internal improvement at public expense, although this policy had already plunged the state into financial embarrassment.
Seward soon became recognized as the leader of the anti-slavery Whigs.
On retiring from office Seward returned to the practice of law.
When the Whigs secured a momentary control of the state legislature in 1849 they sent Seward to the United States Senate.
Although this idea had often been expressed by others, and by Seward himself in his speech of 1848, yet he was severely criticized, and four days later he sought to render this statement innocuous also.
In the election of 1852 Seward supported General Winfield Scott, but not his party platform, because it declared the Compromise of 1850 a finality.
In 1854-1855, when it became evident that the Whig party in the North was moribund, Seward helped to lead its scattered remnants into the Republican fold.
After Lincoln was elected in 1860 he chose Seward for his secretary 1 In 1837 the vessel `"Caroline," which had been used by the Canadian insurgents, was seized by the Canadian authorities in American territory and was destroyed.
The new president was a man comparatively little known outside the state of Illinois, and many of his supporters, doubtful of his ability to deal with the difficult problems of 1861, looked to Seward as the most experienced man of the administration and the one who should direct its policy.
Seward himself, apparently sharing these views, although not out of vanity, at first possessed an unbounded confidence in his ability to influence the president and his cabinet.
Finding himself overruled by the war party in the cabinet, on the 1st of April 1861, Seward suggested a war of all America against most of Europe, with himself as the director of the enterprise.
On the 5th of April 1865 Seward was thrown from his carriage and severely injured.
Seward, and three other persons who came to his assistance, were also wounded by the assailant.
Seward gradually regained his health, and remained in the cabinet of President Johnson until the expiration of his term in 1869.
There was a struggle between the two branches of government, the Executive and Congress.
After returning to private life, Seward spent two years and a half in travel and died at Auburn on the 10th of October 1872.
HiS Son, Frederick William Seward, was born in Auburn, New York, on the 8th of July 1830, graduated at Union College in 1849 and was admitted to the bar at Rochester, N.Y., in 185x.
Seward (2 vols., New York, 1900); see also, The Life and Works of William H.
Seward (5 vols., new ed., Boston, 1883), '' edited by George E.
Seward: an Autobiography from 1891 to 1834, with a Memoir of his Life and Selections from his Letters (3 vols., New York, 1891), by his son, Frederick W.
Seward; William H.
Seward; Lincoln and Seward (New York, 1874), by Gideon Welles; and William Henry Seward (new ed., Boston, 1899), by T.
Recent years, of Zeiller in France, and Scott, Seward and others in England, has advanced our knowledge of the anatomy of ~fossil plants in an important degree.
Seward and Salmon P. Chase, and those of the South, led by Jefferson Davis.
Finally, although Clay for his support of the compromises and Seward and Chase for their opposition have gained in reputation, Webster has been selected as the special target for hostile criticism.
Seward, who made his home here after 1823, and was buried in Fort Hill Cemetery.
When a conference was held in Hampton Roads on the 3rd of February 1865 between President Lincoln and Secretary Seward on the one side, and A.
In 1874 Welles published Lincoln and Seward, in which he refutes the charge that Seward dominated the Administration during the Civil War.
See Anna Seward, Memoirs of the Life of Dr Darwin (1804); and Charles Darwin, Life of Erasmus Darwin, an introduction to an essay on his works by Ernst Krause (1879).
Seward governor in 1838, and to re-elect him and to carry the state for W.
It was during the first administration of Governor Seward that the anti-rent agitation in the Hudson river counties began.
Governor Seward called out the militia to preserve order but asked the legislature to consider the tenants' grievances.
Up to the election of Seward as governor, New York had usually been Democratic, largely through the predominating influence of Van Buren and the " Albany Regency."
Seward, and other leaders of the Whig Party, for the editorship of a campaign paper entitled The Jeffersonian, published at Albany.
In the National Republican Convention in 1860, not being sent by the Republicans of his own state on account of his opposition to William Seward as a candidate, he was made a delegate for Oregon.
His active hostility to Seward did much to prevent the success of that statesman, and to bring about instead the nomination of Abraham Lincoln.
This was attributed by his opponents to personal motives, and a letter from Greeley to Seward, the publication of which he challenged, was produced, to show that in his struggling days he had been wounded at Seward's failure to offer him office.
C. Seward and others, and has led to important discoveries on the nature of extinct groups of plants and also on the phylogeny of existing groups.
His forces; in response to a note of Seward, the United States secretary of state, of the 12th of February 1866, he was induced to promise their return by three instalments - in November 1866, March and November 1867.
But, whether because he drew a distinction between the treason of individuals and of states, or was influenced by Seward, or simply, once in responsible position, separated Republican party politics from the question of constitutional interpretation, at least he speedily showed that he would be influenced by no acrimony, and adopted the lenient reconstruction policy of Lincoln.
Seward characterized as an "irrepressible conflict" the antagonism between freedom and slavery, Birney proclaimed: "There will be no cessation of conflict until slavery shall be exterminated or liberty destroyed" - "liberty and slavery cannot both live in juxtaposition" (1835).
Seward was the most conspicuous Republican in national politics, and Salmon P. Chase had long been in the fore-front of the political contest against slavery.
Chase, however, had little chance, and the contest was virtually between Seward and Lincoln, who by many was considered more "available," because it was thought that he could (and Seward could not) secure the vote of certain doubtful states.
At first Seward had the strongest support.
On the third ballot the 502 votes formerly given to Simon Cameron' were given to Lincoln, who received 2312 votes to 180 for Seward, and without taking another ballot enough votes were changed to make Lincoln's total 354 (2 33 being necessary for a choice) and the nomination was then made unanimeus.
This offer President Lincoln (on the 6th of February) declined to consider, Seward replying for him that it would only be entering into diplomatic discussion with the rebels whether the authority of the government should be renounced, and the country delivered over to disunion and anarchy.
Arnold, History of Abraham Lincoln and the Overthrow of Slavery (Chicago, 1867), revised and enlarged as Life of Abraham Lincoln (Chicago, 1885), valuable for personal reminiscences; Gideon Welles, Lincoln and Seward (New York, 1874), the reply of Lincoln's secretary of the navy to Charles Francis Adams's eulogy (delivered in Albany in April 1873) on Lincoln's secretary of state, W.
Seward, in which Adams claimed that Seward was the premier of Lincoln's administration; F.