Gorchakov's defence of Sevastopol, and final retreat to the northern part of the town, which he continued to defend till peace was signed in Paris, were conducted with skill and energy.
The larger cities (St Petersburg, Moscow, Odessa, Sevastopol, KertchYenikala, Nikolayev, Rostov) have an administrative system of their own, independent of the governments; in these the.
Kronstadt is the naval headquarters in the Baltic, Sevastopol in the Black Sea and Vladivostok on the Pacific.
The second-class fortresses are Kronstadt and Sveaborg in the Gulf of Finland, Ivangorod in Poland, Libau on the Baltic Sea, Kerch on the Black Sea and Vladivostok on the Pacific. In the third class are Viborg in Finland, Ossovets and Ust Dvinsk (or Dunamunde) in Lithuania, Sevastopol and Ochakov on the Black Sea, and Kars and Batum in Caucasia.
The resistance of the sultan, supported by Great Britain and France, led to the Crimean War, which was terminated by the taking of The Sevastopol (September 1855) and the treaty of Paris Crimean (March 30, 1856).
Had the tsar been satisfied with this important success, which enabled him to rebuild Sevastopol and construct a Black Sea fleet, his reign might have been a peaceful and prosperous one, but he tried to recover the remainder of what - had been lost by the Crimean War, the province of Turkish Bessarabia and predominant influence in Turkey.
Mutinies occurred, it is true, during the next few weeks in Kronstadt and Sevastopol, and in December there was streetfighting for several days in Moscow, but such serious disorders were speedily suppressed, and thereafter the revolutionary manifestations were confined to mass meetings, processions with red flags, attempts on the lives of officials and policemen, robberies under arms and agrarian disturbances.
In the Crimean War Baker was present at the action of Traktir (or Tchernaya) and at the fall of Sevastopol, and in 1859 he became major in the 10th Hussars, succeeding only a year later to the command.
The arsenal of Kherson, begun in 1778, the harbour of Sevastopol and the new fleet of fifteen liners and twenty-five smaller vessels, were monuments of his genius.
From the shore except in the north-west corner between Varna and Sevastopol, where it extends 140 m.
For the hardships and sufferings of the English soldiers in the terrible Crimean winter before Sevastopol, owing to failure in the commissariat, both as regards food and clothing, Lord Raglan and his staff were at the time severely censured by the press and the government; but, while Lord Raglan was possibly to blame in representing matters in a too sanguine light, it afterwards appeared that the chief neglect rested with the home authorities.
Roebuck, the Radical member for Sheffield, gave notice that he would move for a select committee " to inquire into the condition of our army before Sevastopol, and into the conduct of those departments of the government whose duty it has been to minister to the wants of that army."
SEVASTOPOL, or Sebastopol, an important naval station of Russia on the Black Sea, on the S.W.
Before the Crimean War of 1853-56 Sevastopol was a wellbuilt city, beautified by gardens, and had 43,000 inhabitants; but at the end of the siege it had not more than fourteen buildings which had not been badly injured.
In 1890 Sevastopol was made a third-class fortress, and the commercial port has been transferred to Theodosia.
The peninsula between the Bay of Sevastopol and the Black Sea was known in the 7th century as the Heracleotic Chersonese.
Sevastopol sustained a memorable eleven months' siege, and on the 8th of September 1855 was evacuated by the Russians.
In November 1870, during the Franco-German War, the Russian government decided again to make Sevastopol a naval arsenal.
The export trade is considerable, the chief ports being Sevastopol, Eupatoria, Theodosia, and Yalta on the Black Sea, and Azov and Berdyansk on the Sea.
The Russians, with the resources of the fleet at their disposal (just as at Sevastopol), used great numbers of machine guns and electric lights, and the available garrison at first was probably, including sailors, 47,000 men.
Recollections of their easy triumph in 1894 and perhaps thoughts of Sevastopol, German theories of the " brusque attack," the fiery ardour of the army, and above all the need of rapidly crushing or expelling the squadron in harbour, combined to suggest a bombardment and general assault.
During the Crimean War he revived his "secret war plan" for the total destruction of an enemy's fleet, and offered to conduct in person an attack on Sevastopol and destroy it in a few hours without loss to the attacking force.
He accordingly threw himself into the study of Russian history, staying in Russia in order to learn its language, institutions and customs. On his return, he published La Russie epique, a study of the heroic songs (1876), a short but excellent Histoire de la Russie depuis les origines jusqu'd l'annee 1877 (1878; 5th ed., 1900), Frangais et Russes, Moscou et Sevastopol 1812-1854 (1876; 2nd ed., 1881), and finally the two important volumes on Russian diplomatic history in the Recueil des Instructions donnees aux ambassadeurs (vols.
The first year of the new reign was devoted to the prosecution of the war, and after the fall of Sevastopol, to negotiations for peace.
Of Sevastopol and Boo from Moscow.
BALAKLAVA, a village in the Crimea, east of Sevastopol, famous for a battle in the Crimean War.
BATTLE OF INKERMAN, fought on the 5th of November 18J4 between a portion of the Allied English and French army besieging Sevastopol and a Russian army under Prince Menshikov (see Crimean War).
This battle derives its name from a ruin on the northern bank of the river Tchernaya near its mouth, but it was fought some distance away, on a nameless ridge (styled Mount Inkerman after the event) between the Tchernaya and the Careenage Ravine, which latter marked the right of the siegeworks directed against Sevastopol itself.
It was apparently intended by Menshikov that the column from the field army should attack the position from the north, and that the Sevastopol column should advance along the west side of the Careenage Ravine.
General Soimonov, with the Sevastopol column, after assembling his troops before dawn on the 5th, led them on to the upland east of Careenage Ravine, while the field army column, under General Pavlov, crossed the Tchernaya near its mouth, almost at right angles to Soimonov's line of advance.
Thus 3300 defenders were able to repulse and even to "expunge from the battlefield" the whole of the Sevastopol column, except that portion of it which drifted away to its left and joined Pavlov.
Corner, where Sevastopol now stands.
Theodosia has gained much of the trade of Sevastopol since that town was made a military port in 1894, and the value of its exports (1z-22 millions sterling annually), principally grain and oil-seeds, is increasing year by year.
In September Sevastopol was taken.
The south bank of the river is bordered by a long ridge, which becomes steeper as it approaches the sea, and upon this the Russians, under Prince Menshikov, were drawn up, to bar the Sevastopol road to the allies, who under General Lord Raglan and Marshal St Arnaud approached from the north over an open plain.
The Russians retaliated by loosing their squadron from Sevastopol, and on the 3oth of November it attacked and destroyed the Turkish fleet at Sinope.
It was resolved to invade the Crimea and attack the great arsenal, Sevastopol, whence the Russian fleet had sailed to Sinope, and in September 1854 the allied armies landed in the Crimea.
On the 20th the Russian army, strongly posted on the banks of the Alma, was completely defeated, and it is almost certain that, if the victory had been at once followed up, Sevastopol would have fallen.
The commanders of the allied armies, however, hesitated to throw themselves against the forts,erected to the north of the town, and decided on the hazardous task of marching round Sevastopol and attacking it from the south.
In September 1855 the allied troops succeeded in obtaining possession of the southern side of Sevastopol, and the emperor of the French, satisfied with this partial success, or alarmed at the expense of the war, decided on withdrawing from the struggle.