The ferment thus set free brings about the coagulation of the serum, which acts as a protective and temporary scaffolding to the injured tissues.
If my serum worked, then we know her blood will give immunity.
Globulins: serum-globulin, egg-globulin, lacto - globulin, cell-globulins.
Not confined to the liquid of granulations; normal blood-serum possesses it to a certain extent, and under bacterial influence it may become very much exalted.
There is only one fairly reliable treatment, that by serum therapeutics, the injection of considerable quantities of serum of animals which have e?
Had sounded the clarion for battle against the Social The Pope Democracy; his encyclical Novarum serum en- and Social deavoured to show the means to be employed, Democracy.
An antitoxic serum has been prepared from horses by the Institut Pasteur in France, but has not met with success.
The results in India obtained by British and various foreign observers were uniformly unfavourable, and the verdict of the Research Committee (1900) was that the serum had " failed to influence favourably the mortality among those attacked."
Of 142 cases treated, 21 died; while of 72 cases not treated, 46 died; but the former were all hospital patients, and included several convalescents and many cases of extreme mildness, whereas the non-serum cases were treated at home or not at all, some being only discovered when death had made further concealment impossible.
Later observations have, however, established that the Yersin-Roux serum is of undoubted benefit when used early in the case, in fact during the first twenty-four hours.
Another serum has been prepared by Lustig and Galeotti.
See Fontes serum Bernensium (original documents up to 1366) (8 vols., Berne, 1883-1903); Die Regesten des Klosters zu Interlaken (Coire, 1849) E.
Although this result is best obtained when the venom and serum are mixed in a glass before injection, yet if they be injected at the same time in different parts of the body the animal will still be protected and the poison will not produce its usual deadly results.
The serum is then removed and its anti-toxic power tested by ascertaining the amount necessary to counteract a given amount of active toxin in a guinea-pig of a certain size, the standard weight being three hundred grammes.
The serum, the strength of which has thus been ascertained, is distributed in bottles and injected in the proper quantity under the skin of children suffering from diphtheria.
The same method of serum therapeutics has been used in other infective diseases, but not with the same success.
Another therapeutic method which is historically much older than that of serum therapeutics is that of inoculation.
Yersin has prepared a serum from horses in the same way as diphtheria anti-toxin, and this is said to have a curative action during the attack.
In the same way sterilized cultures of typhoid bacilli have been used to protect against attacks of typhoid fever, and an anti-typhoid serum has been employed with intent to cure.
Protection does seem to be afforded, but the curative action of the serum is still somewhat doubtful.
These disagreeable results, however, are not to be compared with the benefits obtained by the injection of anti-toxic serum, and this method of treatment is likely to maintain its place in therapeutics.
Immunity against toxins also became a subject of investigation, and the result was the discovery of the antitoxic action of the serum of animals immunized against tetanus toxin by E.
The technique of serum preparation has become since that time greatly elaborated and improved, the work of P. Ehrlich in this respect being specially noteworthy.
Of these the anti-streptococcic serum of A.
The agglutinative action of the serum of a patient suffering from a bacterial disease, first described in the case of typhoid fever independently by Widal and by Griinbaum in 1896, though led up to by the work of Pfeiffer, Gruber and Durham and others.
To mention examples, blood serum solidified at a suitable temperature is a highly suitable medium, and various media are made with extract of meat as a basis, with the addition of gelatine or agar as solidifying agents and of non-coagulable proteids (commercial " pep tone ") to make up for proteids lost by coagulation in the preparation.
And in the second place, the various serum reactions to be described below have been called into requisition.
It may be stated that the introduction of a particular bacterium into the tissues of the body leads to certain properties appearing in the serum, which are chiefly exerted towards this particular bacterium.
The second - passive immunity - is produced by the transference of a quantity of the serum of an animal actively immunized to a fresh animal; the term is applied because there is brought into play no active change in the tissues of the second animal.
The methods of active immunity have been practically applied in preventive inoculation against disease; those of passive immunity have given us serum therapeutics.
It is, however, also accompanied by the appearance of certain bodies in the blood serum of the animal treated, to which the name of anti-substances is given, and these have been the subject of extensive study.
Serum diagnosis of disease.
The last decade of the 19th century will stand out in the history of medical science as the period in which serum therapeutics and serum diagnosis had their birth.
Such a serum may accordingly within certain limits be used for differentiating this organism from others closely allied to it (vide infra).
So far as bacterial immunity is concerned, the anti-serum exerts its action either on the toxin or on the bacterium itself; that is, its action is either antitoxic or anti-bacterial.
The properties of these two kinds of serum may now be considered.
The term " antitoxic " signifies that serum has the power of neutralizing the action of the toxin, as is shown by mixing them together outside the body and then injecting them into an animal.
The antitoxic serum when injected enttinoxic previously to the toxin also confers immunity (passive) against it; when injected after the toxin it has within certain limits a curative action, though in this case its dose requires to be large.
The injections are made subcutaneously and afterwards intravenously; and, while the dose must be gradually increased, care must be taken that this is not done too quickly, otherwise the antitoxic power of the serum may fall and the health of the animal suffer.
The serum of the animal is tested from time to time against a known amount of toxin, i.e.
In the case of diphtheria the antitoxic power of the serum may reach Boo units per cubic centimetre, or even more.
It has, moreover, been found that the serum of various animals has a certain amount of antitoxic action, and thus the basis for antitoxin production, according to Ehrlich's theory, is afforded.