Pais-Serra, Relazione dell' inchiesta sulle condizioni economiche della Sardegna (Rome, 1896); G.
Monchiquite (Ria do Ouro, Serra de Tingua).
Ranges of these chapadas form the boundary lines with three states - the Serras dos Irmaos and Vermelha with Piauhy, the Serra do Araripe with Ceara., and the Serra dos Cariris Velhos with Parahyba.
The largest of the coastal rivers are the Goyanna, which is formed by the confluence of the Tracunhaem and Capibaribe-mirim, and drains a rich agricultural region in the north-east part of the state; the Capibaribe, which has its source in the Serra de Jacarara and flows eastward to the Atlantic at Recife with a course of nearly 300 m.; the Ipojuca, which rises in the Serra de Aldeia Velha and reaches the coast south of Recife; the Serinhaen and the Una.
The general elevation of the plateau is estimated to be about 2700 ft., and the highest elevation was reported in 1892 to be the Serra dos Pyreneos (5250 ft.).
The capital of the state is GoYAz, or Villa-Boa de Goyaz, a mining town on the Rio Vermelho, a tributary of the Araguaya rising on the northern slopes of the Serra de Santa Rita.
The principal mountain ranges are the Serra da Mantiqueira on its southern frontier and its N.
Do Espinhago, which runs parallel to the Serra do Mar, or coast-range, and separates the inland or campo region from a lower forested zone between the two ranges.
Most of the wooded district south of the Mantiqueira belongs to the states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, but east of the Espinhago it belongs to Minas Geraes and extends eastward to the Serra das Aymores, on the frontier of Espirito Santo.
The tributaries of the Rio Doce cover the slopes of the Serra do Espinhago for a distance north and south of about 200 m.
On the western frontier a northern extension of the great central chain of Goyaz forms the water-parting between the drainage basins of the Sao Francisco and Tocantins, and is known at different points as the Serra do Paranan, Serra de Sao Domingos and Serra das Divisoes.
South-east of this chain, between the headwaters of the Parana and Sao Francisco, are the Serra da Canastra and Serra da Matta da Corde, an irregular chain of moderate elevation running north and south.
The highest elevations in the state, so far as known, are Itatiaya (8898 ft.) in the Serra da Mantiqueira, and Caraga (6414 ft.), near Ouro Preto, in the Serra do Espinhago.
The latter rises on the western slopes of the Serra da Matta da Corde, and one of its northern tributaries has its source in a "knot" of the Serra dos Pyreneos, from which streams flow eastward to the Sao Francisco and northward to the Tocantins.
Its source is in the Serra da Canastra, and its general course across the state is north by east, during which it receives the Paracatu, Urucuia, Pardo and Carinhanha from the west and the Verde Grande and das Velhas from the east.
Of Victoria, Espirito Santo, on the eastern slope of the Serra de Espinhago and within the drainage basin of the Rio Doce.
The city is built upon the lower slope of the Serra do Ouro Preto, a spur of the Espinhago, deeply cut by ravines and divided into a number of irregular hills, up which the narrow, crooked streets are built and upon which groups of low, old-fashioned houses form each a separate nucleus.
PETROPOLIS, a city of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in an elevated valley of the Serra de Estrella, 2634 ft.
The Mau5, railway was opened to the foot of the serra (Raiz da Serra) in 1854, and the macadamized road up the serra to the town in 1856.
The most northerly point, the Serra Roraima on the Venezuela and British Guiana frontier (5° 10' N.), is 56 m.
The Brazilian line ran north and northwest from the mouth of the Apaporis to the 10th meridian, which was followed to the water-parting south of the Uaupes basin, thence north-east to the Uaupes river, which was crossed close to the 69th meridian, thence easterly along the Serra Tunaji and Isana river to Cuyari, thence northerly up the Cuyari and one of its small tributaries to the Serra Capparro, and thence east and south-east along this range to the Cucuhy rock (Pedra de Cucuhy) on the left bank of the Negro, where the Colombian section ends.
The boundary with Venezuela, which was defined by a treaty of 1859, runs south-eastward from Cucuhy across a level country intersected by rivers and channels tributary to both the Negro and Orinoco, to the Serra Cupuy watershed which separates the rivers of the Amazon and Orinoco valleys.
On the 9th of December 1905 protocols were signed at Caracas accepting the line between Cucuhy and the Serra Cupuy located in 1880, and referring the remainder, which had been located by a Brazilian commission in 1882 and 1884, to a mixed commission for verification.
To enclose the basin of the Essequibo and its tributaries, thence it turns east and north of east along the Serra Acaria to unite with the unsettled boundary line of Dutch Guiana near the intersection of the 2nd parallel north with the 56th meridian.
Running north-east and south-east to enclose the sources of the Rio Paru, it unites with the French Guiana line at 2° 10' N., 55° W., and thence runs easterly along the water-parting of the Serra Tumuc-Humac to the source of the Oyapok, which river is the divisional line to the Atlantic coast.
The first consists of an almost continuous range crossing the northern end of Rio Grande do Sul and following the coast northward to the vicinity of Cape Frio, and thence northward in broken ranges to the vicinity of Cape St Roque, and a second parallel range running from eastern Sao Paulo northeast and north to the eastern margin of the Sao Francisco basin in northern Bahia, where that river turns eastward to the Atlantic. The first of these is generally known as the Serra do Mar, or Coast Range, though it is locally known under many names.
Its culminating point is in the Organ Mountains (Serra dos Orgaos), near Rio de Janeiro, which reaches an elevation of 7323 ft.
The inland range, which is separated from the Coast Range in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro by the valley of the Parahyba do Sul river, is known as the Serra da Mantiqueira, and from the point where it turns northward to form the eastern rim of the Sao Francisco basin, as the Serra do Espinhaco.
North of Cape Frio the Coast Range is much broken and less elevated, while the Serra do Espinhaco takes a more inland course and is separated from the coast by great gently-sloping, semi-barren terraces.
The eastern range of this central system, which crosses western Minas Geraes from the so-called Serra das Vertentes to the valley of the Paracatu, a western tributary of the Sao Francisco, is called the Serra da Canastra and Serra da Matta da Corde.
Its culminating point is toward its southern extremity in the Serra da Canastra, 4206 ft.
There remains only the elevated valley of the Parahyba do Sul, lying between the so-called Serra das Vertentes of southern Minas Geraes and the Serra do Mar, and extending from the Serra da Bocaina, near the city of Sao Paulo, eastward to Cape Frio and the coastal plain north of that point.
It is traversed by two mountain chains, the Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar, and the broad, fertile valley of the Parahyba do Sul which lies between them, and which slopes gently toward the east from a general elevation exceeding 2000 ft.
Their character is also determined by the distance of the Serra do Mar from the coast, the more southern rivers having short precipitous courses.
North of the Sao Francisco the watershed projecting from the plateau eastward toward Cape St Roque, known as the Serra da Borborema in Parahyba and Rio Grande do Norte where its direction becomes north-east, leaves a triangular section of the easterly slope in which the river courses are short and much broken by rapids.
South of Cape Frio there are no large rivers along the coast because of the proximity of the Serra do Mar - the coastal plain being very narrow and in places disappearing altogether.
The largest of these and the only one of commercial value is the Ribeira de Iguape, which has its source on the tablelands of Parana and after receiving several affluents west of the Serra do Mar breaks through a depression in that range and discharges into the Atlantic"some miles below Santos on the southern boundary of the state of Sao Paulo.
Those of the Paraguay drain the south-western part of Matto Grosso, and the tributaries of the Parana cover the western slopes of the Serra do Mar from Rio Grande do Sul north to the south-west part of Minas Geraes, and include the south-east part of Matto Grosso and the south part of Goyaz within their drainage basin.
In the Parahyba valley, which extends across the state of Rio de Janeiro, the mean temperature is somewhat higher than it is in Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, and the nights are warmer, but the higher valleys of the Serra do Mar enjoy a delightfully temperate climate.
The names, areas, and populations of the states, together with the names and populations of their capitals, are as follows: Communications.-Railway construction in Brazil dates from 1852, when work was initiated on the Maua railway running from the head of the bay of Rio de Janeiro to the foot of the Serra where Petropolis is situated.
The surrounding region, lying on the eastern slopes of one of the lateral ranges of the Serra do Espinhaco, is rough and barren, but.
Regular river navigation begins only at Abrantes, a few miles below which the Tagus is greatly widened by receiving on its right bank the impetuous Zezere from the Serra da Estrella.
The principal exception is the Zatas or Sorraia, which, rising in the Serra d'Ossa, flows westwards across the plateau of Alemtejo, and joins the Mar de Pedro.
A presidio (Spanish military post) was established here in 1782, and a Franciscan mission, by Junipero Serra, about four years later.
The western border of the state is traversed by low ranges of mountains forming a northward continuation of the Serra do Mar.
The longest and most prominent of these ranges, which are for the most part the eastern escarpments of the great Brazilian plateau, is the Serra dos Aymores, which extends along fully two-thirds of the western frontier.
The ranges are much broken and extend partly across the state toward the seaboard; the more prominent are known as the Serra do Espigao, Serra da Chibata, Serra dos Piloes and Serra dos Purys.
From the sea, Serra (municipality, 6274), Guarapary (municipality, 5310), a small port S.
Seler, Mexico and Guatemala (Berlin, 1896); Justo Serra (editor), Mexico: Its Social Evolution, &c. (2 vols., Mexico, 1904); J.
East of the Sao Francisco it may be divided into three distinct regions: a rough limestone plateau rising gradually to the culminating ridges of the Serra da Chapada; a gneissose plateau showing extensive exposures of bare rock dipping slightly toward the coast; and a narrower plateau covered with a compact sandy soil descending to the coastal plain.