The situation of the former serf-proprietors is also unsatisfactory.
Some of the more oppressive measures of the previous reign were abolished; the clergy, the nobles and the merchants were exempted from corporal punishment; the central organs of administration were modernized and the Council of the Empire was created; the idea of granting a constitution was academically discussed; great schemes for educating the people were entertained; parish schools, gymnasia, training colleges and ecclesiastical seminaries were founded; the existing universities of Moscow, Vilna and Dorpat were reorganized and new ones founded in Kazan and Kharkov; the great work of serf-emancipation was begun in the Baltic provinces.
That emperor, after the Crimean War, created a secret committee composed of the great officers of state, called the chief committee for peasant affairs, to study the subject of serf-emancipation.
Scarcely anything is left of the old chapel dedicated to St Dennis, which for a time was used as a smithy; and of the chapel of St Serf, the patron saint of the burgh, only the tower remains.
9 Even in 13th century England more than half the population were serfs, and as such had no claim to the privileges of Magna Carta; disputes between a serf and his lord were decided in the latter's court, although the king's courts attempted to protect the serf's life and limb and necessary implements of work.
With a serf population even this was not impossible; but as the beds of the canals were graded to no even slope, it did not follow that if water entered the head it would flow evenly on.
It took long years to complete, at a cost which can never be estimated, since much of it was done by serf labour.
Here St Serf carried on his missionary labours, and founded a church and cemetery, and here he died and was buried.
Kentigern, the apostle to Cumbria and first bishop of Glasgow, was born at Culross, his mother having been driven ashore during a tempest, and was adopted by St Serf as his son.
In some cases it formed a serf class, e.g.
Bracton speaks of the contrast between the irregular services of a serf, " who could not know in the evening what he would have to do in the morning," and services agreed upon and definite in their amount.
In charters for Spires and Worms proclaimed that in these towns all serf-like conditions.
The serf, the Sudra, was not to worship the gods of the Aryan freemen.
The institution was under the supervision of the ephors, who, on entering office, annually proclaimed war against the helots (serf-class) and thus absolved from the guilt of murder any Spartan who should slay a helot.
The serf is not his own master: to perform services for other persons is the essence of his status, but he is not given over to his lord to be owned as a thing or an amimal - there are legal limits to the lord's power.
Then came a cart, and behind that walked an old, bandy- legged domestic serf in a peaked cap and sheepskin coat.
Nicholas, who, as the roads were in splendid condition, wanted to take them all for a drive in his troyka, proposed to take with them about a dozen of the serf mummers and drive to "Uncle's."
Two young citizens were joking with some serf girls who were cracking nuts.
One day he would order his camp bed to be set up in the glass gallery, another day he remained on the couch or on the lounge chair in the drawing room and dozed there without undressing, while--instead of Mademoiselle Bourienne--a serf boy read to him.
A little serf boy, seeing Prince Andrew, ran into the house.
Several adjutants galloped off, and an hour later, Lavrushka, the serf Denisov had handed over to Rostov, rode up to Napoleon in an orderly's jacket and on a French cavalry saddle, with a merry, and tipsy face.
After marching through a number of streets the patrol arrested five more Russian suspects: a small shopkeeper, two seminary students, a peasant, and a house serf, besides several looters.
That same evening a house serf who had come from Borovsk said he had seen an immense army entering the town.
When Nicholas first began farming and began to understand its different branches, it was the serf who especially attracted his attention.
When a decision had to be taken regarding a domestic serf, especially if one had to be punished, he always felt undecided and consulted everybody in the house; but when it was possible to have a domestic serf conscripted instead of a land worker he did so without the least hesitation.
It had bare deal floors and was furnished with very simple hard sofas, armchairs, tables, and chairs made by their own serf carpenters out of their own birchwood.