The Franciscan friar Kacic, who did so much for the revival of popular poetry in Bosnia and Dalmatia in the mid-18th century, shows similar traces of Serbophil feeling, and the achievements of Dusan and other Serbian Tsars have bulked almost as largely in the modern literature of the Croats as of the Serbs themselves.
The two most notable cases were the formation of the Uskok pirate settlements along the Dalmatian coast in the 16th century, and the settlement of the Serbian patriarch and many thousand Serb refugee families in Slavonia and S.
The Serbian court, instead of being a centre of perpetual scandal and misrule, resumed its true position as a focus of national aspirations, and this change was not lost upon the Yugosla y s of " the other side."
This article, which was based upon a mass of incriminating documents supplied to Friedjung by the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Office, had been timed to coincide with the outbreak of hostilities against Serbia, and was to have been the first of a series convicting the Serbian Government and dynasty of aggressive and even murderous designs.
An attempt on his life by the student Jukic (June 8) was followed by still more reactionary measures, and on July 11 the autonomy of the Serbian orthodox church in Slavonia and Hungary was also suspended.
The Serbian and Bulgarian anthems were sung on the streets, collections were made in every village for the Balkan Red Cross funds, and when Austria-Hungary mobilized, protests were heard on every side against the bare possibility of war with Serbia, which to the Yugosla y s would be a veritable civil war.
After the Archduke's murder the headquarters of various Serbian institutions in Sarajevo had been sacked by mobs, with the open connivance of the police: after the outbreak of war practically all Serb societies and schools were closed in Bosnia.
At a later stage the Orthodox calendar and the Cyrilline alphabet were prohibited, and this was actually enforced in Serbia itself during the Austrian occupation, and in the Serbian districts of Hungary from July 1916 onward.
Worse even than this was the system of wholesale expatriation adopted as a punishment for those who had shown a friendly attitude to the invading Serbian army.
They were in close and cordial contact with the Serbian Government, but rightly insisted on retaining entire independence of action, their funds being derived from their wealthy S.
Serbian officers under General Livkovic were sent out, and many officers of the future Czechoslovak legions first saw service in this corps.
In 1916 the Yugoslav Committee had also set itself to recruiting among its compatriots in America, but in this case its success was hampered by many cross currents of republican, clerical, Austrian and Montenegrin feeling: and those who did actually volunteer showed considerable lack of discipline and were not always treated with the necessary tact by the Serbian military authorities.
- After some weeks of negotiation the so-called " Declaration of Corfu " was signed on July 20 1917, between Pasic as Serbian Premier (and in this case as the mouthpiece of all the Serbian parties) and Dr. Trumbic as president of the Yugoslav Committee.
The Declaration of Corfu made a profound impression in Austria-Hungary, which was heightened by Mr. Lloyd George's speech in honour of Serbia at a luncheon given by the Serbian Society of Great Britain to Pasic (Aug.
The Yugosla y s were represented by Trumbic and his Committee and by 12 deputies of the Serbian Skupstina, the Czechoslovaks by Benes and Stefanik, the Poles by Zamorski, Skirmunt and Seyda, the Rumanians by Draghicescu, Lupu and Mironescu.
Trumbic on his part could not enter a purely Serbian Cabinet without prejudicing that freedom of choice of his compatriots in the Dual Monarchy, upon which the moral case of the Yugosla y s depended.
In July Mr. Mihajlovic, the Serbian minister at Washington, was summarily dismissed.
On July 25 at the London Mansion House Mr. Balfour publicly indorsed the full Yugoslav programme, as formulated by the Serbian minister, Mr. Jovanovic: but the latter's full report to his home Government was answered by a severe snub, and during the winter he too was dismissed for his Yugoslav sentiments.
G the Declaration of Geneva was signed by Pasic as Serbian Premier, Father Korosec, Doctor Cingrija (mayor and deputy of Ragusa) and Doctor Zerjav (a Slovene Progressive) for .the Zagreb Council, Trumbic and four others for the Yugoslav Committee, and Trifkovic, Draskovic and Marinkovic as chiefs of the Serbian opposition parties.
This arrangement, however, never really came into force, for the simple reason that telegraphic communications between the West and Serbia were hopelessly irregular, and that events continued to move, with the advance of the Serbian army and civil authorities from the South and of the Italians from the West.
The Serbian army was also allowed to occupy the Backa, Syrmia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, but no territory farther west: and for a moment it seemed as though an attempt was being made to leave the Croats and Slovenes to their fate and to form an aggrandized Serbia on the lines advocated by Pasic and Petrograd in the summer of 1915.
For to meet this danger, the Zagreb Government urgently invited the assistance of the Serbian army, which during the final advance contained a large proportion of Yugoslav volunteers.
The first Serbian troops entered Fiume on Nov.
On March 3, however, Italy, who had steadily refused to recognize the accomplished fact of Yugoslav unity and insisted on the Conference only admitting the Yugosla y s as a " Serbian " delegation, declined American arbitration and threatened to withdraw altogether from Paris unless their territorial demands were conceded.
Fortunately the new Giolitti and Vesnie Cabinets showed equal moderation and skill in restraining the hotheads on both sides, and the new Foreign Minister, Count Sforza, was assisted by a personal knowledge of Serbian and Balkan problems all too rare among western statesmen.
The murder of Essad Pasha (June 1920) deprived the Serbs of their chief supporter in Albania: and friction was increased by the bad administration in the Sanjak and Macedonia, by the inability of the Durazzo Government to prevent continual armed raids against Serbian territory, and by the encouragement given from some Serbian quarters to the Mirdite rising in the summer of 1921.
During 1919 internal politics centred in a struggle between the Radicals, who still possessed the best party machine and stood for a narrowly Serbian as opposed to a Yugoslav programme, and the newly constituted Democratic party, which absorbed most of the Serbian Opposition parties, the old Serbo-Croat coalition of Zagreb, and the Slovene Liberals.
But though he was thus able to carry the first reading of the new constitution by 227 to 93 votes, he was faced by the passive resistance of the great majority of Croats and Slovenes, who regarded with suspicion his " Great Serbian " and centralizing aims. It is significant that Protic, hitherto Pasic's most intimate associate, withdrew from the Radical party and from Parliament rather than sanction a constitution so inimical to provincial interests: while Trumbic, the foremost advocate of full national unity, recorded his vote against it.
Unpleasant retreats had to be effected twice, before the Kaiser "in shining armour:" the first time after Aehrenthal's annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina, the second after the blocking of the Serbian advance towards the Adriatic. Benckendorff was one of those who knew how to abide his time, and he did not lose heart.
The war was fought in two chief theatres of operations - the less important in Macedonia, against the Serbian, Greek and Montenegrin armies, assisted by two Bulgarian divisions; the more important in Eastern Thrace against the Bulgarians, later assisted by a considerable Serbian force.
In the Macedonian area the Turks were defeated by the Serbian army at Kumanova on Oct.
Another Serbian force, uniting with Montenegrins, had occupied northern Albania the end of October.
This great fortress was taken by assault, in which Serbian troops bore a part, during the last days of March, and a second armistice was arranged soon afterwards.
The Bulgarian armies were on the Greek and Serbian frontiers; the force left in Thrace was weak, and the Turkish Government saw their opportunity.
Since 1910 a meat shortage in Austria had made itself more and more felt, especially in the towns, owing to their rapid growth, the decrease of cattle-raising in the Alpine lands, and the reduction in the imports of Serbian meat through the antiSerbian agrarian policy of Hungary.
On the other hand the efforts made for years by Panslav idealists, Russophil agitators, Serbian propagandists and Italian irredentists, were naturally not without effect.
Of these 32,000 perished during the Serbian retreat or died of fever or cholera.
Here the population was neither definitely Bulgarian nor definitely Serbian, and unless the two allies concerned were both represented in the conquering army the absent member would certainly suffer when it came to drawing the frontier-line.
These provinces would infallibly revolt against the Turkish authority as soon as the Turkish forces withdrew to concentrate for battle in the S., and unless bona fide troops of the Serbian Government came to occupy the countr y, a state of disorder would arise that would equally certainly invite Austrian intervention.'
All these things were, in their varying degrees, elements of policy upon which the Allied strategy must base itself if its war aims were to be obtained, and accordingly the military treaty between Bulgaria and Serbia provided for a Serbo-Bulgarian army of 7 Serbian and 3 Bulgarian divisions to invade Macedonia, moving concentrically against the front Uskub - Kumanovo - Kratovo - Kochana, forming the outer contour of the plain known as Ovche Polye which was assumed on both sides to be the natural concentration area of the Turks.
If the road system was judged by the staffs sufficient to permit of the augmentation of the left wing, this was to be made up of 2 Serbian and 3 Bulgarian divisions - a force equivalent to to Turkish divisions, while the other 5 Serbian divisions (equal to about 8 Turkish) descended from Vranya upon Kumanovo.
If not, the central mass of 5 Serbian divisions was to be flanked on the N.
The balance of the Serbian forces (about 3 divisions) were at the free disposal of their Government, and in fact were intended for the conquest of the Sanjak of Novibazar.
The Ibar Force lay on the river of that name, just inside Serbian territory, opposite Novibazar.
20, while the Serbian I.
But uncertainty as to Bulgarian movements and dispositions was not yet cleared up. In any case, the seizure of the initiative at a moment when the Serbian I.
The Serbian Danube I.
Of Kumanovo with indecisive results, and the remaining Serbian ' These outlying divisions are catalogued here as such.
And the Serbian cavalry division on the 24th completed the work, after hard fighting beyond the Pcinja.
On the Serbian right, the Turkish positions between Cerno Polye and Lipkovo in the foothills of the Kara Dagh fell to the attack of Morava I.
Serbian Army withdrawn.
For some days the Serbian G.H.Q.
But the Serbian G.H.Q.
Had now gleaned many details of the Turkish rout, and, assuming Zekki's army to be reduced to a remnant which could be crushed between a single Serbian army and the Greeks, it made entirely new dispositions on the 29th.
The few Turkish troops available were forced, under pressure from the Montenegrins and the Serbian Yavor Brigade, to concentrate at Plevlye; there they were attacked on the 29th and driven over the Austrian border.
Turkish attacks Turkish corps V Serbian troops - ¦ /?
The Serbian cavalry descending the Vardar had not yet passed the defile of Demir Kapu, the Serbian armies were being rearranged for the new movements above detailed, and even the I.
Were concentrated at Vodena, with the 5th at Khailar and the Grevena force on the Kastoria road, in readiness for an advance on Monastir in concert with the Serbian I.
And also possible to advance without undue risk against the Turks remaining in front of Monastir, the Serbian G.H.Q.
The Serbian plan was to attack the Kikuricani front and the heights abutting on the plain with Morava I.
Meanwhile a Serbian contingent under Boyovich had been sent to assist the Montenegrins and complete the investing line between Drinasa and Boyana.