Farther west came the roads over the higher Alpine passes the Brenner from Verona, the Septimer and the Splugen from Clavenna (Chiavenna), the Great and the Little St Bernard from Augusta Praetoria (Aosta), and the Mont Genvre from Augusta Taurinorum (Turin).
It was also important as the starting-point for the journey across the lake in connexion with the Splugen and Septimer passes (see Chiavenna).
Hence the passes that can be shown to have been certainly known to them are comparatively few in number: they are, in topographical order from west to east, the Col de l'Argentiere, the Mont Genevre, the two St Bernards, the Spliigen, the Septimer, the Brenner, the Radsta.dter Tauern, the SOlkscharte, the P16cken and the Pontebba (or Saifnitz).
Of these the Mont Genevre and the Brenner were the most frequented, while it will be noticed that in the Central Alps only two passes (the Spliigen and the Septimer) were certainly known to the Romans.
The Mont Cenis, Llie Great St Bernard, the St Gotthard, the Septimer and the Brenner.
8,793 Forcellina (Avers Valley to the Septimer Pass), foot path.
8,724 Forcella di Lunghino (Maloja to the Septimer Pass), foot path 8,645 Scaletta Pass (Davos to Scanfs), bridle path..
Way tunnel beneath Septimer Pass (Bivio-Stalla to Casaccia), bridle path..
The oldest, that on the Septimer pass, dates from the Carolingian period, though it was restored in 1120 by the bishop Wido of Chur: that on the Great St Bernard was founded in the 10th century, and reorganized in the 13th.