Other writers are Aaron (the elder) ben Joseph, 13th century, who wrote the commentary Sepher ha-mibhhar; Aaron (the younger) of Nicomedia (14th century), author of `E Ilayyim, on philosophy, Gan `Eden, on law, and the commentary Kether Torah; in the 15th century Elijah Bashyazi, on law (Addereth Eliyahu), and Caleb Efendipoulo, poet and theologian; in the 16th century Moses Bashyazi, theologian.
Other works of a different kind also originated in Italy about this time: the very popular history of the Jews, called Josippon (probably of the 10th or even 9th century), ascribed to Joseph ben Gorion (Gorionides) 1; the medical treatises of Shabbethai Donnolo (loth century) and his commentary on the Sepher Ye,zirah, the anonymous and earliest Hebrew kabbalistic work ascribed to the patriarch Abraham.
In Arabic he wrote his philosophical work, called in the Hebrew translation Sepher ha-Kuzari, a defence of revelation as against non-Jewish philosophy and Qaraite doctrine.
About 1180), in philosophy an Aristotelian (through Avicenna) and the precursor of Maimonides, is chiefly known for his Sepher haqabbalah, written as a polemic against Karaism, but valuable for the history of tradition.
1305), who, however, drew his material in part from earlier written or traditional sources, such as the Sepher Yezirah.
In the first half of the 13th century, Abraham ibn Ilasdai, a vigorous supporter of Maimonides, translated (or adapted) a large number of philosophical works from Arabic, among them being the Sepher ha-tappuah, based on Aristotle's de Anima, and the Mozene Zedeq of Ghazzali on moral philosophy, of both of which the originals are lost.
He wrote numerous translations, of Galen, Aristotle, Ilariri, IIunain ben Isaac and Maimonides, as well as several original works, a Sepher Anaq in imitation of Moses ben Ezra, and treatises on grammar and medicine (Rephuath geviyyah), but he is best known for his Talzkemoni, a diwan in the style of Ilariri's Magimat.
He wrote on grammar (Sepher ha-galui and Sepher Zikkaron), commentaries on Proverbs and the Song of Solomon, an apologetic work, Sepher ha-berith, and a translation of Balhya's Ilobhoth ha-lebhabhoth.
1171), the grandson of Rashi, wrote the Sepher ha-yashar (hiddushin and responsa) and was one of the chief Tosaphists.
1805), author of Shire Tiphe'reth, a long poem on the Exodus, Diblue Shalom, a plea for liberalism, Sepher ha-middoth, on ethics, besides philological works and commentaries.
The Sepher Yesirah, or " book of creation," not the old Hilkoth Y.
It shows the influence of the Sepher Yesirah, is marked by the teaching of a celestial Trinity, is a rough outline of what the Zohar was destined to be, and gave the first opening to a thorough study of metaphysics among the Jews.
Among his works are Wegweisen far rationelle Forschungen in den biblischen Schriften (1853); and translations of Nathan der Weise (1869); Sepher Jezirah (1877); and Munz's History of Philosophy among the Jews (1881).
This custom, which is still observed among the Jews of Caucasia (Tchorni, Sepher ha-Masaoth, pp. 191-192), is very ancient, as it is mentioned in the Talmud (Sanhedrin 64).
Systematic abstracts of the legal parts of the Talmud were made by Isaac Alfazi (or " Riph," 1013-1103), and by Maimonides (Mishneh Torah, otherwise called Sepher haYad or Yad ha-Hazakah).
BOOK OF JASHAR, in Hebrew Sepher ha-yashar, a Hebrew composition mentioned as though well-known in Josh.
By the Jews the book is called Wayyikra (rtrir.) from the first word of the Hebrew text, but it is also referred to (in the Talmud and Massorah) as Torath kohanim (ow5 min, law of the priests), Sepher kohanim ("2 i o, book of the priests), and Sepher korbanim (ow,p, vn, book of offerings).