In 1891, at Doncaster, special prizes were given for combined portable threshing and finishing machines, and cream separators (hand and power).
In 1899, at Maidstone, special prizes were offered for machines for washing hops with liquid insecticides, cream separators (power and hand), machines for the evaporation of fruit and vegetables, and packages for the carriage of (a) soft fruit, (b) hard fruit.
These separators are carefully protected by non-conducting cement and wood lagging, and are closed at the top to prevent loss of heat; and they will run for many hours without requiring to be changed, the duration of the run depending on the quality of the liquor treated and amount of impurities therein.
Smaller separators of the same construction are used for the treatment of syrup.
When a sufficient number are not available for a two hours' defecation, it is the practice in some factories to skim off the scums that rise to the top, and then boil up the juice for a few minutes and skim again, and, after repeating the operation once or twice, to run off the juice to separators or subsiders of any of the kinds previously described.
The juice is then drawn off and pumped up to one of the double-bottomed defecators and redefecated, or, where juice-heaters have been used instead of defecators, the scums from the separators or subsiders are heated and forced through filter presses, the juice expressed going to the evaporators and the scum cakes formed in the filter presses to the fields as manure.
The heat at which the syrup boils in the clarifiers, 220° F., has the property of separating a great deal of the gum still remaining in it, and thus cleansing the solution of sugar and water for crystallization in the vacuum pans; and if after skimming the syrup is run into separators or subsiders of any description, and allowed to settle down and cool before being drawn into the vacuum pan for crystallization, this cleansing process will be more thorough and the quality of the final product will be improved.
Among the town's manufactures are silk and woollen goods, paper, electric elevators, electric lamps, rubber goods, safety pins, hats, cream separators, brushes and novelties.
Two ancient grammarians, Xeno and Hellanicus, were known as the " separators " (oi xcop4"ov-res); and Aristarchus appears to have written a treatise against their heresy.
About 1889 separators and the whole-milk system were introduced, and about the same time began the service of refrigerator cars on the railways; the hand separator became common about 1901.
In the case of those seeds amongst which are found pieces of iron (hammer heads amongst palm kernels, &c.), the seeds are passed over magnetic separators, which retain the pieces of iron.