This single instance of the use of the decimal point in the midst of an arithmetical process, if it stood alone, would not suffice to establish a claim for its introduction, as the real introducer of the decimal point is the person who first saw that a point or line as separator was all that was required to distinguish between the integers and fractions, and used it as a permanent notation and not merely in the course of performing an arithmetical operation.
There seems but little doubt that Napier was the first to make use of a decimal separator, and it is curious that the separator which he used, the point, should be that which has been ultimately adopted, and after a long period of partial disuse.
It is essential that the paper covering be loose, so as to ensure that each wire is enclosed in a coating not of paper only, but also of air; the wires in fact are really insulated from each other by the dry air, the loose paper acting merely as a separator to prevent them from coming into contact.
It was in particular the misfortunes of the later 'seventies that gave the needed fillip to that branch of stock-farming concerned with the production of milk, butter and cheese, and from this period may be said to date the revival of the dairying industry, which received a powerful impetus through the introduction of the centrifugal cream separator, and was fostered by the British Dairy Farmers' Association (formed in 1875).
In 1882, at Reading, a gold medal was given for a cream separator for horse power, whilst a prize of roo guineas offered for the most efficient and most economical method of drying hay or corn crops artificially, either before or after being stacked, was not awarded.
For a few moments, on its way to a steam and juice separator, where the steam due to the superheated juice flashes off, and is either utilized for aiding the steam supplied to the multiple effect evaporators, or for heating cold juice on its way to the main heater, or it is allowed to escape into the atmosphere.
In Australia a continuous juice separator is generally used, and preferred to ordinary subsiding or filtering tanks.
The hot liquor is conducted downwards in a continuous steady stream by a central pipe to eight horizontal branches, from which it issues into the separator at the level of the junction of the cylindrical and conical portions of the vessel.
In a continuous separator of which the cylindrical portion measures 13 ft.
The clear juice when it arrives at the top of the separator flows slowly over the level edges of, a cross canal and passes in a continuous stream to the service tanks of the evaporators or vacuum pan.
The crystallized anthracene is then removed by a centrifugal separator and the process of solution in the pyridine bases is repeated.
Above this "separator" is a reflux condenser, termed the "cooler," maintained at the correct temperature so that only the more volatile component passes to the receiver.
Elsewhere centrifugal force, acting somewhat after its manner in the cream separator, has been called in aid.
About 1889 separators and the whole-milk system were introduced, and about the same time began the service of refrigerator cars on the railways; the hand separator became common about 1901.