From early in the 19th century there had always been separatists, reformists and repressionists in the island, but they were individuals rather than groups.
The last were peninsulars, the others mainly creoles, and among the wealthy classes of the latter the separatists gradually gained increasing support.
The separatists, headed by Carlos Manuel de Cespedes (1819-1874), a wealthy planter who proclaimed the revolution at Yara on the 10th of October, demanded the same reforms, including gradual emancipation of the slaves with indemnity to owners, and the grant of free and universal suffrage.
Permanency of occupation, however, dates from the voyage of the " Mayflower," which brought about a hundred men, women and children who had mostly belonged to an English sect of Separatists, originating in Yorkshire, but who had passed a period of exile for religion's sake in Holland.
In 1893 he published the Story of the English Separatists, and later the Homes and Haunts of the Pilgrim Fathers; he also wrote the life of Dr J.
Whatever may be thought of their application of these principles, there is no mistaking the deeply religious aim of these separatists for conscience' sake, viz.
" Reformation without tarrying for Anie " was the burden laid on the heart of the Congregational pioneers in 1567-1571; and it continued to press heavily on many, both " Separatists " and conforming " Puritans " (to use the nicknames used by foes), before it became written theory in Robert Browne's work under that title, published at Middelburg in Holland in 1582 (see Browne, Robert).
To this fact the very nickname " Brownists," usually given to early " Separatists " by accident, but Congregationalists in essence, is itself witness.
In this he was in advance even of most Separatists, who held with Barrow 1 " that the Prince ought to compel all their subjects to the hearing of God's Word in the public exercises of the church."
But of organized churches we can trace none in England, until we come in 1586 to Greenwood and Barrow, the men whose devotion to a cause in which they felt the imperative call of God seems to have rallied into church-fellowship the Separatists in London, whether those of Fytz's day or those later convinced by the failure of the Puritan efforts at reform and by the writings of Browne.
Powicke, " Lists of the Early Separatists," in Cong.
These semi-separatists still set great store by the church-covenant, in which they bound themselves " to walk together in all God's ways and ordinances, according as He had already revealed, or should further make them known to them."
Strictly speaking the members of this colony were Separatists, i.e.
Winthrop's company were nonconformists but not separatists, esteemed it " an honour to call the Church of England, from whence we rise, our dear mother," emigrated that they might be divided from her corruptions, not from herself.
The remarkable junction or fusion of the Independents or " Separatists " who emigrated from Leiden to Plymouth, Massachusetts, with the Puritan Nonconformists of Massachusetts Bay, modified Independency by the introduction of positive fraternal relations among the churches.
They were from the beginning Separatists from the Church of England; they had established Independent (Congregational) churches at Scrooby and Gainsborough early in the 17th century, and some of them had fled to Amsterdam in 1608 to avoid persecution, and had removed to Leiden in the following year.
The emigration to Massachusetts in 1629, which continued in a stream till 1640, was not composed of separatists but of episcopalians.
The name, which may be translated "Separatists," indicates their devotion to the ideal, enforced by Ezra and Nehemiah upon the reluctant Jews, of a nation separate from all other nations in virtue of its the old titles of the rulers of the separate king peculiar relation to Yahweh (Neh.
The rebels, who were in two hostile parties, Indulged and Separatists, failed to hold Bothwell Bridge, and were easily routed.
It remained a place of little importance until the 17th century, when religious persecution drove to it a number of Calvinists and Separatists from Julich and Berg (followed later by Mennonites), who introduced the manufacture of linen.
Permanent settlement was established at Plymouth by a band of Separatists, who, although they had expected to settle in Virginia, were prevailed upon by the captain of their vessel to land in New England.
The General Assembly of Glasgow in 1638 abjured Laud's book and took its stand again by the Book of Common Order, an act repeated by the assembly of 1639, which also demurred against innovations proposed by the English separatists, who objected altogether to liturgical forms, and in particular to the Lord's Prayer, the Gloria Pcrtri and the minister kneeling for private devotion in the pulpit.