Of the sea on the north-eastern escarpment of the Futa Jallon highlands, the massif where also rise the head-streams of the Senegal and some of the Niger tributaries, besides the Rio Grande and many other rivers flowing direct to the Gulf of Guinea.
Versant of the hills which here form a narrow divide between the basin of the Senegal and that of the upper Niger.
It was not until 1818 that the sources of the Gambia were reached, the discoverybeing made by a Frenchman, Gaspard Mollien,who had travelled by way of the Senegal and Bondu.
To the Sources of the Senegal and Gambia ..., edited by T.
The attempts at penetration into the extreme south, abandoned after the massacre by Tuareg of a mission sent in 1881, under Colonel Paul Flatters, to study the question of railway communication with Senegal, were begun again in 1890, in which year the British government recognized the western Sahara as within the French sphere.
For further information see Senegal, Gold Coast, Ivory Coast, French Guinea, Portuguese Guinea, Liberia, &C. For the history of European discoveries, consult G.
It is the only port of Senegal affording safe anchorage for the largest ships.
SENEGAL, a river of West Africa, entering the Atlantic about 16° N., some io m.
North of the Senegal the Sahara reaches the coast, and for over moo miles no river enters the ocean.
The eastern headwaters of the Senegal thus drain a large area adjacent to the upper Niger.
The first rise in the lower Senegal is due to the rains in the source region of the Faleme, the flood water passing down that stream more quickly than down the Bafing owing to its shorter course.
The Senegal indeed has what is styled an interior delta, but, with the exception of the marigot named, all the divergent branches rejoin the main stream before the sea is reached.
In the rainy season the barriers are submerged in succession, the reaches are filled and the plains of the lower Senegal are changed into immense marshes.
Owing to these natural "locks," the Senegal never discharges less than 1700 or 1800 cubic ft.
From July to October the level of the Senegal shows a series of fluctuations, with, however, a general increase till the end of August or beginning of September, when the maximum occurs.
From Mafu to the sea, a distance of 215 m., the Senegal is navigable all the year round by vessels drawing not more than to ft.
The existence of the Senegal appears to have been known to the ancients.
At that period geographers regarded the Senegal as the termination of the Niger, a theory held until Mungo Park's demonstration of the eastward course of that stream.
Besides the important harbours already referred to, the French fleet has naval bases at Oran in Algeria, Bizerta in Tunisia, Saigon in Cochin China and Hongaj in Tongking, DiegoSuarez in Madagascar, Dakar in Senegal, Fort de France in Martinique, Nouma in New Caledonia.
The funds for these Upper Senegal andr Sahara)
In addition to Algeria, which sends three senators and six deputies to Paris and is treated in many respects not as a colony but as part of France, the colonies represented in the legislature are: Martinique, Guadeloupe and Reunion (each electing one senator and two deputies), French India (one senator and one deputy),Guiana, Senegal and Cochin-China (one deputy each).
In India the franchise is exercised without distinction of color or nationality; in Senegal the electors are the inhabitants (black and white) of the communes which have been given full powers.
By the French colony of Upper Senegal and Niger, E.
As most of the rivers have rapids or falls actually at the sea coast or close to it, they are, with the exception of the Cavalla, useless for penetrating far inland, and the whole of this part of Africa from Cape Palmas north-west to the Senegal suggests a sunken land.
The flora of the rainless region of south-western Asia is continuous with the desert flora of northern and eastern Africa, and extends from the coast of Senegal to the meridian of 75° E., or from Asia.
This species is often considered as indigenous to India, but Dr Engler has pointed out that it is found wild in Upper Guinea, Abyssinia, Senegal, etc. It is the " tree cotton " of India and Africa, being typically a large shrub or small tree.
A map of Senegal (1:100,000) is in progress since 1905.
Deniker, " Les Maures de Senegal," L' Anthr.
In July 1816 the French frigate "Medusa," which carried officers on their way to Senegal to take possession of that country for France, was wrecked off Arguin, 350 lives being lost.
By the colony of Upper Senegal and Niger, E.
DAKAR, a seaport of Senegal, and capital of French West Africa, in 14° 40' N., 17° 24' W.
True gum-arabic is the product of Acacia Senegal, abundant in both east and west tropical Africa.
The pods of Acacia nilotica, under the name of neb-neb, and of other African species Acacia Senegal, flowering branch, natural size (after A.
By Portuguese Guinea and Senegal, E.
By Upper Senegal and the Ivory Coast, and S.
Besides the Niger, Gambia and Senegal, all separately noticed, a large number of streams running direct to the Atlantic rise in Futa Jallon.
From Kurussa the Niger is navigable at high water all the way to Bamako in Upper Senegal, whence there is communication by rail and river with St Louis and Timbuktu.
Several other main roads have been built by the French, and there is a very complete telegraphic system, the lines having been connected with those of Senegal in 1899.
South of Senegal) and also to Futa Jallon.
About the time that the British government became wearied of its efforts to open up the interior of West Africa, General Faidherbe was appointed governor of Senegal (1854), and under his direction vigorous efforts were made to consolidate French influence.
North of the Senegal and separated on the north-west from Adrar Suttuf by wide valleys and sand dunes.
(Blanchet died in Senegal on the 6th of October 1900, a few days after his return from Adrar.) Atar is inhabited by Arab and Berber tribes, and is described as a wretched spot.