SENEGAL, a river of West Africa, entering the Atlantic about 16° N., some io m.
North of the Senegal the Sahara reaches the coast, and for over moo miles no river enters the ocean.
Versant of the hills which here form a narrow divide between the basin of the Senegal and that of the upper Niger.
The eastern headwaters of the Senegal thus drain a large area adjacent to the upper Niger.
Through a valley bordered on either side by hills which throw out rocky spurs, over which the Senegal descends in a succession of falls, those of Guina (160 ft.) and of Felu (50 or 60 ft.) being the most important.
The first rise in the lower Senegal is due to the rains in the source region of the Faleme, the flood water passing down that stream more quickly than down the Bafing owing to its shorter course.
From that town a railway connects with the navigable waters of the upper Niger at Bamako (see Senegal: Country, I.).
The Senegal indeed has what is styled an interior delta, but, with the exception of the marigot named, all the divergent branches rejoin the main stream before the sea is reached.
In the rainy season the barriers are submerged in succession, the reaches are filled and the plains of the lower Senegal are changed into immense marshes.
Lake Cayor on the right side of the lower Senegal and Lake Panieful (Guier) on the left constitute reserve basins, receiving the surplus waters of the river during flood and restoring them in the dry season.
Owing to these natural "locks," the Senegal never discharges less than 1700 or 1800 cubic ft.
The lower Senegal forms the boundary between the Sahara and the western Sudan; the line of its inundations is an ethnographic march between the nomadic Berber and the settled Negro.
From July to October the level of the Senegal shows a series of fluctuations, with, however, a general increase till the end of August or beginning of September, when the maximum occurs.
From Mafu to the sea, a distance of 215 m., the Senegal is navigable all the year round by vessels drawing not more than to ft.
The existence of the Senegal appears to have been known to the ancients.
The mouth of the Senegal, then called Senaga, was entered in 1445 by the Portuguese navigator Dinas Diaz (who thought it a western arm of the Nile), and in 1455 Cadamosto ascended the river for some distance.
At that period geographers regarded the Senegal as the termination of the Niger, a theory held until Mungo Park's demonstration of the eastward course of that stream.
Mollien, Decouverte des sources du Senegal et de la Gamble- (Paris, ed.
Ancelle, Les Explorations au Senegal et dans les contrees voisines (Paris, 1886); M.
Olivier, Le Senegal (Paris, 1908); Captain Fromaget, "L'Hydrographie du fleuve Senegal," in B.S.G.
Besides the important harbours already referred to, the French fleet has naval bases at Oran in Algeria, Bizerta in Tunisia, Saigon in Cochin China and Hongaj in Tongking, DiegoSuarez in Madagascar, Dakar in Senegal, Fort de France in Martinique, Nouma in New Caledonia.
The funds for these Upper Senegal andr Sahara)
In addition to Algeria, which sends three senators and six deputies to Paris and is treated in many respects not as a colony but as part of France, the colonies represented in the legislature are: Martinique, Guadeloupe and Reunion (each electing one senator and two deputies), French India (one senator and one deputy),Guiana, Senegal and Cochin-China (one deputy each).
In India the franchise is exercised without distinction of color or nationality; in Senegal the electors are the inhabitants (black and white) of the communes which have been given full powers.
By the French colony of Upper Senegal and Niger, E.
As most of the rivers have rapids or falls actually at the sea coast or close to it, they are, with the exception of the Cavalla, useless for penetrating far inland, and the whole of this part of Africa from Cape Palmas north-west to the Senegal suggests a sunken land.
The flora of the rainless region of south-western Asia is continuous with the desert flora of northern and eastern Africa, and extends from the coast of Senegal to the meridian of 75° E., or from Asia.
A map of Senegal (1:100,000) is in progress since 1905.
Deniker, " Les Maures de Senegal," L' Anthr.
In July 1816 the French frigate "Medusa," which carried officers on their way to Senegal to take possession of that country for France, was wrecked off Arguin, 350 lives being lost.
By the colony of Upper Senegal and Niger, E.
It was to the zone between the Kong states and the hinterland of Liberia that Samory (see Senegal) fled for refuge before he was taken prisoner (1898), and for a short time he was master of Kong.
Of the sea on the north-eastern escarpment of the Futa Jallon highlands, the massif where also rise the head-streams of the Senegal and some of the Niger tributaries, besides the Rio Grande and many other rivers flowing direct to the Gulf of Guinea.
It was not until 1818 that the sources of the Gambia were reached, the discoverybeing made by a Frenchman, Gaspard Mollien,who had travelled by way of the Senegal and Bondu.
To the Sources of the Senegal and Gambia ..., edited by T.
The attempts at penetration into the extreme south, abandoned after the massacre by Tuareg of a mission sent in 1881, under Colonel Paul Flatters, to study the question of railway communication with Senegal, were begun again in 1890, in which year the British government recognized the western Sahara as within the French sphere.
For further information see Senegal, Gold Coast, Ivory Coast, French Guinea, Portuguese Guinea, Liberia, &C. For the history of European discoveries, consult G.
In 1904 the term Mauretania was revived as an official designation by the French government, and applied to the territory north of the lower Senegal under French protection (see Senegal).
DAKAR, a seaport of Senegal, and capital of French West Africa, in 14° 40' N., 17° 24' W.
It is the only port of Senegal affording safe anchorage for the largest ships.
It shares with Rufisque and St Louis the external trade of Senegal and the adjacent regions.
Dakar thus came into direct communication with the countries of Upper Senegal and the middle Niger.
By French possessions (Dahomey, Upper Senegal and Niger colony, and Chad territory), S.E.
The establishment of these firms was admittedly a political move which coincided with the extension of French influence from Senegal into the interior.
C. vulgaris or niloticus of most of Africa, is found from the Senegal to Egypt and to Madagascar, reaching a length of i 5 ft.
FULA (FULBE, FELLATAH or Peuls), a numerous and powerful African people, spread over an immense region from Senegal nearly to Darfur.
They are most numerous in Upper Senegal and in the countries under French sway immediately south of Senegambia, notably Futa Jallon.
In the district of Senegal known as Fuladugu or "Fula Land," where the purest types of the race are found, the people are of a reddish brown or light chestnut colour, with oval faces, ringlety or even smooth hair, never woolly, straight and even aquiline noses, delicately shaped lips and regular features quite differentiating them from the Negro type.
After serving in the Crimea and in China, and being governor of Senegal, he was promoted to rear-admiral in 1869.
The name Moor is however still applied to the populations speaking Arabic who inhabit the country extending from Morocco to the Senegal, and to the Niger as far east as Timbuktu, i.e.