The court was composed exclusively of senators, some of whom might have been his personal friends.
Without consulting the New York senators, Garfield appointed William H.
This question was solemnly submitted to a grand council of prelates, senators, ministers and other dignitaries on the 13th of June 1718.
Both senators and deputies receive a salary of 600 per annum.
The council also chooses communal delegates to elect senators; and draws up the list of repartiteurs, whose function is to settle how the communes share of direct taxes shall be allotted among the taxpayers.
In addition to Algeria, which sends three senators and six deputies to Paris and is treated in many respects not as a colony but as part of France, the colonies represented in the legislature are: Martinique, Guadeloupe and Reunion (each electing one senator and two deputies), French India (one senator and one deputy),Guiana, Senegal and Cochin-China (one deputy each).
The senate consists of princes of the blood who have attained their majority, and of an unlimited number of senators above forty years of age, who are qualified under any one of twenty-one specified categoriesby having either held high office, or attained celebrity in science, literature, &c. In 1908 there were 318 senators exclusive of five members of the royal family.
Such privileges, even of an honorary kind, as the nobles did enjoy by law belonged to them, not as nobles, but as senators and senators' sons.
The constitution requires that the number of senators shall be not less than one-third nor more than onehalf the number of members of the Assembly, and that the total membership of both houses shall not exceed seventy-five.
The pay for both senators and representatives is four dollars per day for a period not exceeding sixty days; should the session be prolonged the extra service is without compensation.
Until 1905 the only grounds for an absolute divorce were 1 Under the Constitution of 1776 senators were elected by counties, one for each county, and representatives also by counties, two for each county - in addition, the towns of Edenton, Newbern, Wilmington, Salisbury, Hillsboro and Halifax each elected one representative; and a property qualification - a freehold of 50 acres held for six months before an election - was imposed on electors of senators.
Under amendments of 1835 senators were chosen by districts formed on the basis of public taxes paid into the state treasury, representatives were still chosen by counties, and were apportioned among them on the same basis as their Federal representation (i.e.
In 1856 the property qualification for electors of senators was removed.
The effect of this was that in January 1835 the legislature passed a bill for submitting the question legally to all the voters of the state, although this bill itself limited the proposed convention's power relating to representation by providing that it should so amend the constitution that senators be chosen by districts according to public taxes, and that commoners be apportioned by districts according to Federal representation, i.e.
The number of senators was reduced to 50, the number of commoners to 120, and the manner of choosing senators and commoners was changed as directed in the act providing for the convention.
He alone could ratify treaties of peace and alliance, and on his nomination fifty-four senators were added to the senate, which thereafter numbered one hundred and twenty members appointed by him alone.
In 1908 a direct primary law was passed providing for party primaries, those of all parties in each district to be held at the same time (annually) and place, before the same election board, and at public expense, to nominate candidates for township and municipal offices and members of the school board; nominations to be by petition signed by at least 2% of the party voters of the political division, except that for United States senators a of 1% is the minimum.
The Enabling Act was passed on the 30th of April 1802, the first state legislature met on the 1st of March 1803, the Territorial judges gave up their offices on the 15th of April 1803, and the Federal senators and representatives took their seats in Congress on the 17th of October 1803.
On the eighth ballot he received 1331 votes, on the ninth 3742 votes, and on the tenth he secured the nomination with 6922 votes, the result being due largely to the support of certain influential U.S. Senators, delegates to the convention, who hoped that as president he would be amenable to the Senate.
But he retained the political support of many who were opposed, like Senators Borah and Johnson, to any sort of international association.
The public baths were kept under strict supervision; the toga was ordered to be worn in public by senators and equites on solemn occasions; extravagant banquets were prohibited; rules were made to prevent the congestion of traffic in the streets.
The legislature meets biennially, the senators being chosen for four, the representatives for two years.
All the senators subsequently took the oath except Metellus, who went into exile.
Its administration was in the hands of three praefecti aerarii militaris, at first appointed by lot, but afterwards by the emperor, from senators of praetorian rank, for three years.
By the lex Aurelia (70 B.C.) the list of judices was composed, in addition to senators and equites, of tribuni aerarii.
Vespasian could be liberal to impoverished senators and knights, to cities and towns desolated by natural calamity, and especially to men of letters and of the professor class, several of whom he pensioned with salaries of as much as £boo a year.
The number of senators is fixed by the constitution at 39; the number of representatives is to be not more than 116 or less than 98.
Half of the senators retire every four years.
Intra urbem) it was prescribed as the proper everyday dress of senators, instead of the military chlamys, the toga being reserved for state occasions.
In 218, as a leader of the democratic opposition, Flaminius was one of the chief promoters of the measure brought in by the tribune Quintus Claudius, which prohibited senators and senators' sons from possessing sea-going vessels, except for the transport of the produce of their own estates, and generally debarred them from all commercial speculation (Livy xxi.
At the beginning of the republican period, senators were included in the equestrian centuries.
The' change of the equites into a body of financiers was further materially promoted (a) by the lex Claudia (218 B.C.), which prohibited senators from engaging in commercial pursuits, especially if (as seems probable) it included public contracts (cf.
Apparently Gracchus at first proposed to create new senators from the equites and to select the jurymen from this mixed body, but this moderate proposal was rejected in favour of one more radical (see W.
Although this measure was bound to set senators and equites at variance, it in no way improved the lot of those chiefly concerned.
It is probable that certain privileges of the equites were due to Gracchus; that of wearing the gold ring, hitherto reserved for senators; that of special seats in the theatre, subsequently withdrawn (probably by Sulla) and restored by the lex Othonis (67 B.C.); the narrow band of purple on the tunic as distinguished from the broad band worn by the senators.
To this period Mommsen assigns the regulation, generally attributed to Augustus, that the sons of senators should be knights by right of birth.
By the lex Aurelia (70 B.C.) the judices were to be chosen in equal numbers from senators, equites and tribuni aerarii (see Aerarium), the last-named being closely connected with the equites), who thus practically commanded a majority.
The sons of senators were eligible by right of birth, and appear to have been known as equites illustres.
In the jury courts, the equites, thanks to Julius Caesar, already formed two-thirds of the judices; Augustus, by excluding the senators altogether, virtually gave them the sole control of the tribunals.
Certain official posts, of which it would have been inadvisable to deprive senators, could thus be bestowed upon the promoted equites..
The emperor Hadrian chose senators as companions on his travels and to help him in public business.
By the decree of the ist of March 1808, reviving titles of nobility, that of count was assigned ex officio to ministers, senators and life councillors of state, to the president of the Corps Legislatif and to archbishops.
The senators must be not less than thirty-five years of age, and are exempt from all legal processes not previously authorized by the senate during their term of office, except in cases of arrest in flagrante delicto for a capital crime.
It is now represented in the Union Parliament by eight senators and seventeen members of the House of Assembly.
The province is represented in the Union Parliament by eight senators and thirty-six members of the House of Assembly.
The fashion of shoes worn by Roman senators was said to have been derived from Etruria.
The senators' calceus had four such straps (quattuor corrigiae), which were wound round the ankle (cf.
It is not worth while to refer to all the wild guesses that were made by various writers, but Dr Creighton shows the absurdity of one of these calculations made in 1554 by Soranzo, the Venetian ambassador for the information of the doge and senators of Venice.
Senators and deputies are inviolable in the exercise of their duties, and cannot be arrested or imprisoned during a session of Congress, including the month preceding and following the session, except in flagrante delicto.
Senators and deputies are elected by direct vote - the former by departments, and the latter in proportion to the population.