Catulus was the last princeps senates of republican times; he held the office of censor also, but soon resigned, being unable to agree with his colleague Licinius Crassus.
He was now declared to be the equal of the Polish king, and his successor could be elected only by the senates of Poland and Lithuania in conjunction.
3, 1501) the senates of both countries agreed that, in future, the king of Poland should always be grand-duke of Lithuania; but this was the sole benefit which the Republic derived from the reign of Alexander, under whom the Polish government has been well described as a rudderless ship in a stormy sea, with nothing but the grace of God between it and destruction.
The Senates act as courts for the trial of state officers impeached by the house (in imitation of the British House of Lords and the Federal Senate), and have in some states Powers and the function of confirming or refusing appointments Funcons made by the governor.
The term is also applied in the inscriptions of Veii to the municipal senates and Cures, which numbered ioo members.
It sits in four criminal and six civil senates, each consisting of seven judges, one of whom is the president.
The five universities of Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Allahabad and Lahore, which were formerly merely examining bodies, had their senates reformed by the introduction of experts; while hostels or boarding-houses for the college students were founded, so as to approach more nearly to the English ideal of residential institutions.