South of the lake is a wide plain, traversed by the Semliki river, which enters the Nyanza through a swamp of tall weeds, chiefly ambach and papyrus.
- Albert Nyanza receives the whole of the drainage of Albert Edward Nyanza and the Semliki river, and with them and its own basin forms the "Albertine " Nile system.
At that time, recent from a geological standpoint, the valley to the north, through which now flows the Semliki river, was blocked.
The removal of the block led to the shrinkage of the lake and the formation of the Semliki, which found its way to the more northern lake - Albert Nyanza.
Gradually the Semliki eroded its bed, and consequently the level of Albert Edward Nyanza continued to fall.
Albert Nyanza, on the other hand, is threatened in the distant future with destruction from another cause - the filling of its bed by the alluvium poured into it by the Semliki, the Victoria Nile and, in a lesser degree, by other streams. The Semliki receives directly or indirectly the whole of the drainage of Ruwenzori, and also that of the eastern face of the Congo mountains as well as the drainage basin of Albert Edward Nyanza.
Charged with all this matter, the Semliki, as it emerges from the region of forest and cataracts (in which, often closely confined by its mountain barriers, the stream is deep and rapid), becomes sluggish, its slope flattens out, and its waters, unable to carry their burden, deposit much of it upon the land.
The combined drainage area, including the water surface of Albert Edward Nyanza, the Semliki and Albert Nyanza, is some 16,600 sq.
Or more per annum), the volume of water entering Albert Nyanza by the Semliki when in flood being not less than 700 cubic metres per second.
Long., from the German frontier on the south, across Albert Edward Nyanza and the Semliki River to the line of waterparting between the systems of the Congo and the Nile (in the country of Mboga); thence northwards this western boundary descended to the north coast of Albert Nyanza at Mahagi, and then followed the main stream of the Nile to about 5° N.
From that point the frontier is formed by the Semliki to its mouth and the middle of Albert Nyanza to a point opposite Mahagi, where it meets the CongoSudan frontier.
The rainfall on Ruwenzori and the central Semliki valley is quite loo in.
The geography of the Western province includes many interesting features, the in many ways peculiar Albert Nyanza (q.v.), the great snowy range of Ruwenzori (q.v.), the dense Semliki, Budonga, Mpanga and Bunyaraguru forests, the salt lakes and salt springs of Unyoro and western Toro, the innumerable and singularly beautiful crater lakes of Toro and Ankole, the volcanic region of Mfumbiro (where active and extinct volcanoes rise in great cones to altitudes of from 11,000 to nearly 15,000 ft.), and the healthy plateaus of Ankole, which are in a lesser degree analogous in climate and position, and the Nandi plateau on the east of Victoria Nyanza.
There are luxuriant tropical forests in the coast region of Buganda, in Busoga, west Elgon, western Unyoro, eastern Toro, the central Semliki valley and north-west Ankole.
These are also found in part of the Semliki forests.
As a rule, however, the fauna of the Upper Semliki valley, of parts of Ankole, Buganda and Unyoro, of the Northern, Rudolf and Eastern provinces, is of that " East African," " Ethiopic " character which is specially the feature of South and East Africa and of the Sudan right across from Abyssinia to the river Senegal.
Among notable mammals the chimpanzee is found in Unyoro, Toro and north-west Ankole, and has only recently become extinct in Buganda; the okapi inhabits the Semliki forests on the Congo frontier; the giraffe (the male sometimes developing five horn cores) is common in the Northern, Eastern and Rudolf provinces; there are three types of buffalo - the Cape, the Congo and the Abyssinian; two species of zebra (one of them Grevy's), the African wild ass, the square-lipped (" white ") and pointed-lipped (" black ") rhinoceroses, the elephant, hippopotamus, water tragelaph (" Speke's antelope "), Cape ant-bear, aard-wolf (Proteles), hunting-dog, and nearly every genus and most of the species of African antelopes.
(r) Pigmy-prognathous (so-called " Congo " pigmies of Semliki forest, of Kiagwe in Buganda, and of the western graphers (with the consent of Edward VII.) Lake Edward, and.
The pigmies are generally known as Bambute or Bakwa in the Semliki forests.
Pygmaeus) of Guinea; Hylarnus includes one species from Cameroon and a second from the Semliki forest; while Nesotragus comprises the East African suni antelopes, N.
Johnston in the spring of 1901, is a native of the Semliki forest, in the district between Lakes Albert and Albert Edward.
It includes some of the volcanic peaks which, north of Lake Kivu, stretch across the rift-valley and attain heights of 13,000 and 14,000 ft.; Albert Edward Nyanza and part of the Semliki river; part of Ruwenzori, the so-called" Mountains of the Moon,"with snow-clad heights exceeeding 16,50o ft.