This portion of the law, designed to reassure foreign Catholics, met with little opposition; but the second portion, regulating the relations between state and church in Italy, was sharply criticized by deputies who, like Sella, recognized the ideal of a free church in a free state to be an impracticable dream.
Sella hoped by the application of a mechanical meter both to obviate the odium attaching to former methods of collection and to avoid the maintenance of an army of inspectors and tax-gatherers, whose stipends had formerly eaten up most of the proceeds of the impost.
Before proposing the reintroduction of the tax, Sella and his friend Ferrara improved and made exhaustive experiments with the meter.
Ferrara, successor of Scialoja, met a like fate; but Count Cambray-Digny, finance minister in the Menabrea cabinet of 1868-1869, driven to find means to cover a deficit aggravated by the interest on the Venetian debt, succeeded, with Sellas help, in forcing a Grist Tax Bill through parliament, though in a form of which Sella could not entirely approve.
Under the stress of the appalling financial conditions represented by chronic deficit, crushing taxation, the heavy expenditure necessary for the consolidation of the kingdom, the reform of the army and the interest on the pontifical debt, Sella, on the 11th of December 1871, exposed to parliament the financial situation in all its nakedness.
By economies and new taxes Sella had reduced the deficit to less than 2,000,000 in 1871, but for 1872 he found himself confronted with a total expenditure of 8,ooo,ooo in excess of revenue.
But for the tactics of Rattazzi, leader of the Left, who, by basing his opposition on party considerations, impeded the secession of Minghetti and a part of the Right from the ministerial majority, Sella would have been defeated.
In the spring of 1873 it became evident that the days of the Lanza-Sella cabinet were numbered.
Sella, the real head of the Lanza cabinet, was worn out by four years continuous work and disheartened by the perfidious misrepresentation in which Italian politicians, particularly those of the Left, have ever excelled.
Sella, uncertain of the loyalty of the Right, challenged a vote on the immediate discussion of further financial reforms, and on the 23rd of June was overthrown by a coalition of the Left under Depretis with a part of the Right under Minghetti and the Tuscan Centre under Correnti.
Minghettis finance, though less clearsighted and less resolute than that of Sella, was on the whole prudent and beneficial.
With the aid of Sella he concluded conventions for the redemption of the chief Italian railways from their French and Austrian proprietors.
Moreover, the redemption of the railways by the statecontracts for which had been signed by Sella in 1875 on behalf of the Minghetti cabinet with Rothschild at Basel and with the Austrian government at Viennahad been fiercely opposed by the Left, although its members were for the most part convinced of the utility of the operation.
Besides, the Left stood for anticlericalism and for the retention by the State of means of coercing the Church, in opposition to the men of the Right, who, with the exception of Sella, favored Cavours ideal of a free Church in a free State, and the consequent abandonment of state control over ecclesiastical government.
The Chamber, though convinced of the danger of this reform, the perils of which were incisively demonstrated by Sella, voted by an overwhelming majority for an immediate reduction of the impost by onefourth, and its complete abolition within four years.
Guiccioli, the biographer of Sella, observes that Italian politicians find it especially hard to resist the temptation of appearing crafty.
The only politician capable of dealing adequately with the situation was Sella, leader of the Right, and to him the crown appealed.
The faction leaders of the Left, though divided by personal jealousies and mutually incompatible ambitions, agreed that the worst evil which could befall Italy would be the return of the Right to power, and conspired to preclude the possibility of a Sella cabinet.
Again Sella was called upon, but again the dog-in-the-manger policy of Depretis, Cairoli, Nicotera and Baccarini, in conjunction with the intolerant attitude of some extreme Conservatives, proved fatal to his endeavours.
This process of transformation was not exclusively the work of Depretis, but had been initiated as early as 1873, when a portion of the Right under Minghetti had, by joining the Left, overturned the Lanza-Sella cabinet.
The process was accelerated by Sellas illness and death (14th March 1884), an event which cast profound discouragement over the more thoughtful of the Conservatives Ind Moderate Liberals, by whom Sella had been regarded as a supreme political reserve, as a statesman whose experienced vigour and patriotic sagacity might have been trusted to lift Italy from any depth of folry or misfortune.
His death gave rise to an Abyssinian war of succession between Mangash, natural son of John, and Menelek, grandson of the Negus Sella-Sellassi.
Economies for more than 1,000,000, were immediately effected, taxes, calculated to produce 2,440,000, were proposed to be placed upon land, incomes, salt and corn, whi]e the existing income-tax upon consols (fixed at 8% by Cambray-Digny in 1868, and raised to 13.20% by Sella in 1870) was increased to 20% irrespectively of the stockholders nationality.
In 1864 he was appointed, by Sella, secretary-general of finance, and after being created senator in 1865, acquired considerable fame as a financial authority.
Fuorcla Sella (same to same), snow ï¿½ Passo di Bondo (Bondo to the Baths of Masino), snow Passo di Castello (Maloja to Morbegno), snow .
Sella and D.
Throughout his term of office he was supported by the finance minister Count Cambray Digny, who forced through parliament the grist tax proposed by Quintino Sella, though in an altered form from the earlier proposal.
Both in and out of office he exercised his influence against an Italo-French alliance and for an immediate advance upon Rome, and in 1870 was sent to London and Vienna by the Lanza-Sella Cabinet to organize a league of neutral powers on the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War.
In 1873 he overthrew the Lanza-Sella Cabinet and regained the premiership, which, with the portfolio of finance, he held until the fall.
2 The insignia of the praetor were those common to the higher Roman magistrates - the purple-edged robe (toga praetexta) and the ivory chair (sella curulis); in Rome he was attended by two lictors, in the provinces by six.
On the right of the XXVII., holding the line as far as the Sella di Dol between Monte Santo and Monte San Gabriele, were Caviglia's XXIV.
QUINTINO SELLA (1827-1884), Italian statesman and financier, was born at Mosso, near Biella, on the 7th of July 1827.
The Rattazzi cabinet fell before Sella could efficaciously provide for the deficit of £17,500,000 with which he was confronted; but in 1864 he returned to the ministry of finance in the La Marmora cabinet, and dealt energetically with the deficit of £8,000,000 then existing.
(19) Retracing our steps for a moment in that direction, we find that in 1813 Sahela (or Sella) Selassie, younger son of the preceding ras, Wassen Seged, had proclaimed himself negus or king.
1811 Becurraye Sella Selassie = Woizero Betsabesh (1795-1847) Haeli Melicoth = Ejigayu (1825-1855) Menelek II.
Currus, " chariot"), in Roman antiquities, the epithet applied to the chair of office, sella curulis, used by the "curuie" or highest magistrates and also by the emperors.
CANGAS DE Onis, or Cangas, a town of northern Spain, in the province of Oviedo; situated on the right bank of the river Sella, in a fertile, well-watered, partly wooded, undulating region.