He was in fact a typical representative of the unscrupulous selfseeking Polish magnates of the 17th century who were always ready to sacrifice everything, their country included, to their own private ambition.
No one now denies that he was one of those exceptional men, who without selfseeking spend their lives in the service of a cause and fight bravely against the stream of corruption.
His patriotism was untainted by selfseeking; he was courageous in risking his popularity for what his sound judgment showed him to be the right course.
Nor had he shown himself unduly ambitious or selfseeking in the pursuit of office, and he had proved himself ready to sacrifice high place to the claims of professional honour and duty.
The promotion was unexpected, and was accompanied by expressions from the king which made it still more honourable, as showing that if he had been in some things too subservient, it was from no abject, selfseeking policy of his own.