Such definitions, then, are to be accepted, if at all, as definitions of type, selective designations of leading but not strictly universal features.
The adherence to type, the favourite conception of the transcendental morphologist, was seen to be nothing more than the expression of one of the laws of thremmatology, the persistence of hereditary transmission of ancestral characters, even when they have ceased to be significant or valuable in the struggle for existence, whilst the so-called evidences of design which was supposed to modify the limitations of types assigned to Himself by the Creator were seen to be adaptations due to the selection and intensification by selective breeding of fortuitous congenital variations, which happened to prove more useful than the many thousand other variations which did not survive in the struggle for existence.
But it is forgotten that both the plant and the soil enjoy special powers of selective absorption, which remove and fix the better constituents of the water and leave the less valuable.
In city districts the modern practice is to restrict the number to four stations per line, and to equip the exchanges and stations for selective ringing.
The alkaloid curarin causes motor paralysis by attacking in a selective way this junction of motor nerve cell and striped muscular fibre.
An absolutely imperceptible physiological difference arising as a variation may be of selective value, and it may carry with it correlated variations which appeal to the human eye but are of no selective value themselves.
In this way the existence of bands in the infrared part of the spectrum has been predicted in the case of quartz and detected by experiments on the selective reflection of the material.
Thus in many cases the difficulty of supposing that selection has acted on minute and imperceptible initial variations, so small as to have no selective value, may be got rid of.
It is interesting to note that in the case of the closely analogous example of snake venoms, there may be separated from a single venom a number of toxic bodies which have a selective action on different animal tissues.
In all such cases there is seen a selective character in the distribution of the lesions, some organs being in any disease much more liable to infection than others.
These personal traits determine by selective affinity, working under conditions given by the special local type of tradition and piety, the elements in the Apostolic writings which each was able to assimilate and express - though we must allow also for variety in the occasions of writing.
The earliest war measures aimed at sedition and disloyalty had as a background the passage of the conscription or Selective Service law.
Homoplasy can only be assumed when the coincidence is of a simple nature, and is such as may be reasonably supposed to have arisen by the action of like selective conditions upon like material in two separate lines of descent.'
Living organisms vary, that is to say, no two individuals are exactly alike; the death-rate and the multiplication-rate are to a certain extent selective, that is to say, on the average, in the long run, they favour certain variations and oppress other variations.
Most bodies exhibit a selective action on light, that is to say, they readily absorb light of particular wave-lengths, light of other wave-lengths not being largely absorbed.
Genetic modification of plants and animals has been going on for a long time in the form of selective breeding.
Some of these changes he supposed to have been the result of new conditions, including abundance of food and protection from enemies, but most he attributed to the accumulated results of selective breeding.
- The arrangement of students in order of merit led naturally to the use of examinations not only as a qualifying but also as a selective test, and to the offering of money prizes (including exhibitions, scholarships and fellowships) on the results.
Steel differs in many ways from iron in respect of atmospheric corrosion; the heterogeneous nature of steel gives occasion to a selective rusting, ferrite is much more readily attacked than the cementite and pearlite; moreover, the introduction of other elements may retard rusting; this is particularly the case with the nickel-steels.
Whether God's action is creative, or only (selective and directive in miracles, is beyond our knowledge; we at least do not know the powers exercised, whether new or old.
He subsequently examined the passage of gases through septa or partitions of indiarubber, unglazed earthenware and plates of metals such as palladium, and proved that gases pass through these septa neither by diffusion nor effusion nor by transpiration, but in virtue of a selective absorption which the septa appear to exert on the gases in contact with them.
In 1917 he gave his support to the declaration of war against Germany, and also to all the war measures, including the Selective Draft and Espionage bills.
Those who were unwilling to accept evolution, without better grounds than such as are offered by Lamarck, and who therefore preferred to suspend their judgment on the question, found in the principle of selective breeding, pursued in all its applications with marvellous knowledge and skill by Darwin, a valid explanation of the occurrence of varieties and races; and they saw clearly that, if the explanation would apply to species, it would not only solve the problem of their evolution, but that it would account for the facts of teleology, as well as for those of morphology; and for the persistence of some forms of life unchanged through long epochs of time, while others undergo comparatively rapid metamorphosis.