Apart from this, the characteristic of seignorial justice is its independence and its freedom from the central court; though, when we reflect that the central court is a court of seigneurs, this characteristic is seen to be the logical result of the whole system.
Midway between the seignorial cours de bourgeoisie and the privileged jurisdictions of the Italian quarter, there were two kinds of courts of a commercial character - the cours de la fonde in towns where trade was busy, and the cours de la chaine in the sea-ports.
On behalf of the committee appointed to deal with feudal rights, he presented to the Convention reports on the seignorial rights which were subject to compensation, on hunting and fishing rights, forestry, and kindred subjects.
Making yearly visits to the country, and further keeping himself in touch with it by means of a special "minister of Silesia," he was enabled to effect numerous political reforms, chief of which were the strict enforcement of religious toleration and the restriction of oppressive seignorial rights.
According to the varying extent of the liberties conceded them, there may be distinguished towns governed by an elective body and more or less fully authorized to exercise jurisdiction; towns possessing some sort of municipal organization, but no rights of jurisdiction, except that of simple police; and, thirdly, those governed entirely by seignorial officers.