A study of the development of the pitcher, especially in the young pitchers of seedling plants, shows that the inflated portion is a development of the midrib of the leaf, while the wings, which are especially well represented in the terrestrial type of pitcher, represent the upper portion of the leaf-blade which has become separated from the lower portion by the tendril; the lid is regarded as representing two leaflets which have become fused.
On the other hand, adaptations, especially those evoked by climatic or edaphic conditions, may only, be shown by the seedling if grown under the appropriate external conditions; here what is hereditary is not the actual adaptation, but the capacity for responding in a particular way to a certain set of external conditions.
The embryo is generally surrounded by a larger or smaller amount of foodstuff (endosperm) which serves to nourish it in its development to form a seedling when the seed germinates; frequently, however, as in pea or bean and their allies, the whole of the nourishment for future use is stored up in the cotyledons themselves, which then become thick and fleshy.
A B In Great Britain the flea beetles (Halticidae) are one of the most serious enemies; one of these, the turnip flea (Phyllotreta nemorum), has in some years, notably 1881, caused more than 500,00o loss in England and Scotland alone by eating the young seedling turnips, cabbage and other Cruciferae.
Seedling plants from the cultivated vines often produce unisexual flowers, thus reverting to the feral type.
Seedling plants of tobacco, like many other crops, are liable to attack by " cut worms," the caterpillars of species of Peridromia and Agrotis.
In other species of the genus the seed germinates on a branch, and the seedling produces clasping roots, and roots which grow downwards hanging like stout cords, and ultimately reaching the ground.
In 1909 the state legislature passed an act authorizing any city, borough or township of the first class to acquire, subject to the approval of the commissioner of forestry, a municipal forest; and it authorized the distribution of seedling forest trees, at cost, to those who would plant and protect them, for growing private forests.
In the latter case the seedling has early to shift for itself, and to form roots and leaves for the supply of its needs.
The stocks are commonly divided into two classes: - (1) free stocks, which consist of seedling plants, chiefly of the same genus or species as the trees from which the scions are taken; and (2) dwarfing stocks, which are of more diminutive growth, either varieties of the same species or species of the same or some allied genus as the scion, which have a tendency to lessen the expansion of the engrafted tree.
The ground being prepared and, if necessary, enriched, and the surface made fine and smooth, a hole is made with the dibble deep enough and large enough to receive the roots of the seedling plants without doubling them up, and the hole is filled in by working the soil close to the plant with the point of the dibble.
In delicate cases, such as seedling gloxinias and begonias, it is best to lift the little seedling on the end of a flattish pointed stick, often cleft at the apex, pressing this into the new soil where the plant is to be placed, and liberating it and closing the earth about it by the aid of a similar stick held in the other hand.
If a young seedling or cutting of any soft-wooded plant is to be bushy, it must have [[[Garden Operations]] its top nipped out by the thumb-nail or pruning-scissors at a very early stage, and this stopping must be repeated frequently.
It is the rapid spread of these yeast-conidia in manure and soil waters which makes it so difficult to get rid of smuts, &c., in the fields, and they, like the ordinary conidia, readily infect the seedling wheat, oats, barley or other cereals.
Infection in these cases occurs in the seedling at the place where root and shoot meet, and the infecting hypha having entered the plant goes on living in it and growing up with it as if it had no parasitic action at all.
On germination, however, the fungus behaves in the same way as one which has entered in the seedling stage.
Many parasites can enter a seedling, but are unable to attack the same host when older - e.g.
Ericaceae, Pyrolaceae, Gentianaceae, Orchidaceae, ferns, &c. Recent experiments have shown that the difficulties of getting orchid seeds to germinate are due to the absence of the necessary fungus, which must be in readiness to infect the young seedling immediately it emerges from the seed.
Frequently, as in many Dicotyledons, the primary root, the original root of the seedling, persists throughout the life of the plant, forming, as often in biennials, a thickened tap-root, as in carrot, or in perennials, a much-branched root system.
Especially in relation to the origin of the vascular bundles which supply them, favours the view that the scutellum and pileole are highly differentiated parts of a single cotyledon,and this view is in accord with a comparative study of the seedling of grasses and of other monocotyledons.
The first leaves borne on the seedling axis are often scalelike, and these are followed by two or more larger laminae, which foreshadow the pinnae of the adult frond.
Another departure from the normal is that in which the juvenile or seedling form of shoot persists in the adult tree; the numerous coniferous plants known as species of Retinospora are examples of this.
The seedling plants of some Conifers (e.g.
A pair of small strapshaped leaves succeed the two cotyledons of the seedling, and persist as the only leaves during the life of the plant; they retain the power of growth in their basal portion, which is sunk in a narrow groove near the edge of the crown, and the tough lamina, 6 ft.
What mysterious force guided the seedling from the dark earth up to the light, through leaf and stem and bud, to glorious fulfilment in the perfect flower?