His object, therefore, is to protest against the growing secularization of the Pharisaic party through its adoption of popular Messianic beliefs and political ideals.
The process of change is called by Harnack sometimes " secularization" and sometimes ' Hellenization."
In the Hasmonaean sovereignty these ideas took a political form, and the result was the secularization of the kingdom of God for the sake of a harsh and rapacious aristocracy.
That a sovereign like St Louis should be able to associate himself officially with the feudalism of his realm to repress abuses of church jurisdiction; that a contemporary of Philip the Fair, the lawyer Pierre Dubois, should dare to suggest the secularization of ecclesiastical property and the conversion of the clergy into a class of functionaries paid out of the royal treasury; and that Philip the Fair, the adversary of Boniface VIII., should be able to rely in his conflict with the leader of the Church on the popular consent obtained at a meeting of the Three Estates of France - all point to a singular demoralization of the sentiments and principles on which were based the whole power of the pontiff of Rome and the entire organization of medieval Catholicism.
The secularization of Prussia was opposed by the more religious of Sigismund's counsellors, and the king certainly exposed himself to considerable odium in the Catholic world; but taking all the circumstances into consideration, it was perhaps the shortest way out of a situation bristling with difficulties.
Nor was it unreasonable that from the secularization of Islam the chief advantage should be reaped by those who best knew the world.
The abbesses, however, retained certain rights of jurisdiction, and disputes between them and the Prussian government were frequent until the secularization of the abbey in 1803.
In some cases the secularization of episcopal principalities at the Reformation led to the survival of the title of bishop as a purely secular distinction.
By a new act in 1866 the process of secularization was extended to the whole kingdom.
The immediate results of disestablishment were civil marriage, the civil registry of births and deaths, and the secularization of cemeteries; but the church retains its influence over all loyal churchmen through the confessional, the last rites of the church, and their sentiment against the profanation of holy ground.
The growing violence of his latest works is to be accounted for, not only by his burning indignation against the ever-advancing secularization of the Catholic church, but also by the incompatibility between the authorities which he recognized and yet was not able to reconcile.
But his appeal was in vain, and so the secularization of the Pharisaic movement culminated in due course in the fall of Jerusalem.
In 1813 the Spanish Cortes ordered the secularization of all missions in America that were ten years old, but this decree was not published in California until 1821.
After that secularization was the burning question in Californian politics.
Up to 1835 there were two settlements on the peninsula - one about the presidio, the other about the mission; the former lost importance after the practical abandonment of the presidio in 1836, the latter after the secularization of the mission, beginning in 1834.
The more or less complete secularization of 1 Walworth, the fourth abbot of St Alban's, c. 930, is charged by Matthew Paris with adopting the attire of a sportsman.
As a matter of fact, however, the revolution caused by the secularization of the ecclesiastical states in 1803 practically put an end to the system, and the servitia have either been commuted via gratiae to a moderate fixed sum under particular concordats, or are the subject of separate negotiation with each bishop on his appointment.
A general arbitrary arrest of the Templars, the sequestration of their property, examination under torture, the falsifying of procedure, extortion of money from the pope, the auto-da-f~ of innocent victims, the dishonest pillaging of their goods by the joint action of the king and the pope: such was the outcome of this vast process of secularization, which foreshadowed the events of the 16th and 18th centuries.
The suppression of the Inquisition and the secularization of the church landsmeasures which had already been taken by the government of the intruding French king Joseph at Madrid-passed together with much else.
Spain was so far relaxed as to permit the re-establishment of the orders of St Vincent de Paul, St Philip Neri and one other among those approved by the Holy See, so that throughout the country the bishops might have at their disposal a sufficient number of ministers and preachers for the purpose of missions in the villages of their dioceses, &c. In practice the phrase one other was interpreted by the bishops, not as one for the whole of Spain, but as one in each diocese, and at the request of the bishops congregations of all kinds established themselves in Spain, the number greatly increasing after the loss of the colonies and as a result of the measures of secularization in France.i The result was what is usual in such cases.
For the coronation was hardly over when Seor Moret resigned, Lopez- and on the 6th of July Captain-General LopezDominguez Dominguez became head of a cabinet with a frankly Ministry, anti-clerical programme, including complete liberty ~ of worship, the secularization of education, and the drastic regulation of the right of association.
He belonged to what was called the Great German party, and opposed the project of reconstituting Germany under the leadership of Prussia; he defended the government against the liberal and democratic opposition; at this time he began the struggle against the secularization of schools, which continued throughout his life.
The final secularization was delayed till 1819.
The secularization of the church was carried to a pitch never before dreamed of, and it was clear to all Italy that he regarded the papacy as an instrument of worldly schemes with no thought of its religious aspect.
It was he too who, by the secularization on the one hand and by the dismemberment of Wurttemberg on the other, gave the grand-duke 50o,000 new subjects.
He was opposed with extreme violence by all the Conservative parties, who regarded the secularization of the schools as a persecution of religion.
- (ED.) valley from its entrance to Kufstein, and the Kitzbiihel region (north-east) were all won from Bavaria; in 1517 Rovereto and several other places on the present south-eastern frontier were acquired from Venice; in 1803 many fiefs in the bishoprics of Trent and Brixen were annexed on the secularization of those two bishoprics; while finally the rest of the Zillerthal, with Windisch Matrei, was obtained in 1816 from the archbishopric of Salzburg.
Secularization was mentioned in parliament.
Indeed, there was reason to believe at this time that the archbishops of Mainz, Trier and Cologne, as well as some other bishops, were planning the secularization of their principalities.
At the time of the secularization of Church properties there were about 120 religious edifices in the city - churches, convents, monasteries, &c. - many of which were turned over to secular uses.
The two great political issues of the time were the secularization of the clergy reserves in Ontario, and the abolition of seigniorial tenure in Quebec. Both of these reforms Macdonald long opposed, but when successive elections had proved that they were sup ported by public opinion, he brought about a coalition of Conservatives and moderate reformers for the purpose of carrying them.
The late 2nd century movement known as Montanism was in essence a revolt against this growing secularization of the Church, but the movement failed, and the development against which it protested was only hastened.
A succession of devout but incapable generals, after the death of Acquaviva, saw the gradual secularization of tone by the flocking in of recruits of rank and wealth desirous to share in the glories and influence of the Society, but not well adapted to increase them.
Before the secularization of the monastic lands in 1864, it was one of the richest and most important of the Rumanian monasteries.
Furnished with ample means, the Russian monks neglect no opportunity of adding to their possessions on the holy mountain; their encroachments are resisted by the Greek monks, whose wealth, however, was much diminished by the secularization of their estates in Rumania(1864).
The peace of Luneville (1801) established the French boundary at the Rhine; and the German princes who thereby lost lands west of the river were indemnified by the secularization of ecclesiastical territories to the east.
In 1879 a bill was passed for the secularization of primary education; but an attempt was made to conciliate the clergy by Art.
The French Revolution swept them out of France and caused the secularization of the great majority in central Europe and Italy.
Probably the oldest building in Cuba is the convent of San Francisco (a church since the secularization of the religious orders in 1841), which dates in part from the first half of the 16th century.
In 1294 it was again united with the archbishopric and the prelates retained it until 15 3 8; then in 1579 Augustus, elector of Saxony, made an arrangement which again gave the office to the archbishops, who held it until the secularization of the see.
Like so many lawyers of his time, he was violently opposed to the clergy, and strongly supported the secularization of church property.
His object is to protest against the growing secularization of the Pharisaic party through its adoption of popular Messianic beliefs and political ideals.
But secularization was in harmony with the growth of republican ideas.
In 1826 a beginning toward it was made in partially emancipating the neophytes, but active and thorough secularization of the missions did not begin until 1834; by 1835 it was consummated at sixteen missions out of twenty-one, and by 1840 at all.
In these years the secularization of the papacy was carried to its final point by Alexander VI., and the Reformation became inevitable.
Order of the Sword, amalgamated, since 1237, with the more powerful order of the Teutonic Knights, had by the secularization of the latter order into the dukedom of Prussia (1525) become suddenly isolated in the midst of hostile Slavonians.
Michael Sturdza also attempted the secularization of monastic establishments, which was carried out by Prince Cuza in 1864, and the utilization of their endowments for national purposes.