See Holyoake's Principles of Secularism (1885).
Lecky and Creighton are almost as dispassionate as Gardiner, but are more definitely committed to particular points of views, while democratic fervour pervades the fascinating pages of J.R.Green, and an intellectual secularism, which is almost religious in its intensity and idealism, inspired the genius of Maitland.
It is sufficient to recall the well-known names of Joachim of Floris, of all the numerous Franciscan spiritualists, of the leading sectaries from the 13th to the 15th century who assailed the papacy and the secularism of the church - above all, the name of Occam.
The writings of Tertullian afford the clearest demonstration that what is called Montanism was, at any rate in Africa, a reaction against secularism in the Church.
Flint has dealt with the following antitheistic theories: atheism, materialism, positivism, secularism, pessimism, pantheism and (in a separate volume) agnosticism.
But the growing secularism of the Church led to a revival of the former method in the beginning of the 13th century amongst the Franciscans.
The answer to dogmatic atheism, that it implies infinite knowledge, has been well stated in John Foster's Essays, and restated by Chalmers in his Natural Theology, and its force is recognized in Holyoake's careful qualification of the sense in which secularism accepts atheism, " always explaining the term atheist to mean `not seeing God' visually or inferentially, never suffering it to be taken for anti-theism, that is, hating God, denying God - as hating implies personal knowledge as the ground of dislike, and denying implies infinite knowledge as the ground of disproof."
As the word implies, secularism is based solely on considerations of practical morality with a view to the physical, social and moral improvement of society.