Theodosius began the system of giving secular authority to Church tribunals.
And Theodosius I., took a great step forward, by which the bishop ceased to be a mere legally indicated arbitrator by consent in secular causes, and became a real judge.
This probably was, as Johnson suggests, that the bishop might enforce secular laws by ecclesiastical censure and the alderman ecclesiastical laws with secular punishment.
Incorrigible offenders on these matters were " left " to the secular power, to be corrected with due " animadversion."
Secular education has been vigorously opposed by strict churchmen, and efforts have been made to maintain separate schools under church control.
In 1075 he caused the investiture of ecclesiastica dignitaries by secular potentates of any degree to be condemned These two reforms, striking at the most cherished privileges ant most deeply-rooted self-indulgences of the aristocratic caste ii Europe, inflamed the bitterest hostility.
While leaving intact the general houses of the various confraternities (except that of the Jesuits), the bill abolished the Religious corporate personality of religious orders, handed over Bill, their schools and hospitals to civil administrators, placed their churches at the disposal of the secular clergy, and provided pensions for nuns and monks, those who had families being sent to reside with their relatives, and those who by reason of age or bereavement had no home but their monasteries being allowed to end their days in religious houses specially set apart for the purpose.
Sees traditionally founded by Apostles, or of sees with a special secular position.
Even before the edict of Milan, at least as early as the latter half of the 3rd century, the spiritual sentences of deposition from office had sometimes indirect temporal consequences recognized by the secular courts.
Provides that a recent decree of the usurper John should be disregarded and that clerks whom he had brought before secular judges should be reserved for the episcopal jurisdictions," since it is not lawful to subject the ministers of the divine office to the arbitrament of temporal powers."
There seems to have been no machinery for assisting the original or appellate jurisdiction of the pope by secular process, - by significavit or otherwise.
The sentence of the court Christian had in all other cases to be enforced by the secular arm.
In the cases of heresy, apostasy and sorcery, the spiritual courts sought the aid of the secular jurisdiction to superadd the punishment of death.
Leo had intended his younger brother Giuliano and his nephew Lorenzo for brilliant secular careers.
It follows of necessity that there are some matters which may be called "mixed," and which are the legitimate concern of the two powers, such as church property, places of worship, the appointment and the emoluments of ecclesiastical dignitaries, the temporal rights and privileges of the secular and regular clergy, the regulation of public worship, and the like.
His programme included these three points: (I) the celibacy of the clergy; (2) the abolition of ecclesiastical appointments made by the secular authority; (3) the vesting of the papal election in the hands of the Roman clergy and people, presided over by the curia of cardinals.
The canon provides that any clerk having a complaint against another clerk must not pass by his own bishop and turn to secular tribunals, but first lay b a re his cause before him, so that by the sentence of the bishop himself the dispute may be settled by arbitrators acceptable to both parties.
But the secular arm, from the time of Nicaea I., was in the habit of aiding spiritual decrees, as by banishing deposed bishops, and gradually by other ways, even with laymen.
11 -19) the conference reaffirmed strongly the necessity for definite Christian teaching in schools, "secular systems" being condemned as "educationally as well as morally unsound, since they fail to co-ordinate the training of the whole nature of the child" (Res.
Primary education is free and secular, and is compulsory for children of 6 to 14 years.
- The Babylonian calendars contain explicit directions for the observance of abstention from certain secular acts on certain days which forms a close parallel to the Jewish Sabbatical rules.
And at the same time there had been suppressed 11,889 chapters and benefices of the secular clergy, which yielded an annual income of 109,149.
The 123rd Novell (c. 21) provides that if a clerk be accused of a secular crime he shall be accused before his bishop, who may depose him from his office and order, and then the competent judge may take him and deal with him according to the laws.
C. 71, tithe has become, except in a few rare cases, tithe rent charge, and its recovery has been entirely an operation of secular law.
By rigid precedence the Brahmans occupy the first rank; they are numerous and influential, and with them may be classed the peculiar and important caste of Bhats, the keepers of secular tradition and of the genealogies.
There were in 1901 20,707 parishes in Italy, 68,444 secular clergy and 48,043 regulars (monks, lay brothers and nuns).
Concordatum, agreed upon, from con-, together, and cor, heart), a term originally denoting an agreement between ecclesiastical persons or secular persons, but later applied to a pact concluded between the ecclesiastical authority and the secular authority on ecclesiastical matters which concern both, and, more specially, to a pact concluded between the pope, as head of the Catholic Church, and a temporal sovereign for the regulation of ecclesiastical affairs in the territory of such sovereign.
As a relapsed heretic, he was " left to the secular arm " by Chicheley.
After the establishment of responsible government the main issue was how to tax the citizens.
It should be remembered that, from the latter part of the 3rd century, the leading bishops had generally been trained in secular learning.
In France, till 1329, there seems to have been no clear line of demarcation between secular and ecclesiastical jurisdictions.