He is assisted in the government by 4 ministers of departments, under the presidency of a secretary of state, and, when occasion demands the extraordinary discussion of legislative proposals, by a council of state (Staatsrat), consisting of the secretary of state, under secretaries, the president of the supreme court of justice of the territory and, as a rule, of 12 nominees of the emperor.
He was also associated with Antonio Perez as one of the secretaries who acted as the agents of the king in all dealings with the various governing boards which formed the Spanish administration.
Under it all the principal officers of state, including the first lords of the treasury and admiralty, the secretaries of state, and certain members of the privy council, among whom was the archbishop of Canterbury, obtained seats at the board ex officio; and ten unofficial members, including several eminent statesmen, were also placed on the committee.
So important is the practical co-operation of the imperial administration and the Prussian government, that it has become customary to appoint to seats in the Prussian ministry the more important of the secretaries of state who administer imperial affairs under the chancellor.
The more important secretaries of state, however, are political officials, who are practically almost solely responsible for their department; they sit in the Bundesrat, and defend their policy in the Reichstag, and they often have a seat in the Prussian ministry.
They were found in the chanceries of the republics, in the papal curia, in the council chambers of princes, at the headquarters of condottieri, wherever business had to be transacted, speeches to be made and the work of secretaries to be performed.
Joseph Glanvill, in his Scepsis Scientifica (dedication) says, " Solomon's house in the New Atlantis was a prophetic scheme of the Royal Society "; and Henry Oldenburg (c. 1615-1677), one of the first secretaries of the society, speaks of the new eagerness to obtain scientific data as " a work begun by the single care and conduct of the excellent Lord Verulam."
When the weakness of his eyes made it necessary for him to depend almost entirely on the service of readers and secretaries, in his eighty-first year he began to write the Weltgeschichte (9 vols., Leipzig, 1883-88).
On the other hand they are generally written by men of affairs - governors, secretaries or ambassadors; and a fatalistic temper leads their authors to a certain impartial recording of everything, good or evil, which seems of moment.
And the other assistant under-secretaries £ 1200.
All salaried 220,479 165,144 government officials (except minis ters, under-secretaries of state and other high functionaries, and officers 210,020 347,940 in the army or navy), and ecclesiastics, -, are disqualified for election.
Mr English, one of his secretaries, has furnished a picture of him at this period seated in a study lined on two sides with books and darkened by green screens and curtains of blue muslin, which required readjustment with almost every cloud that passed across the sky.
The approach of the " Monitor " and the Union gunboats up the James river caused a partial and temporary panic; President Davis appointed a day for prayer, and the families of some of the cabinet secretaries and many citizens fled the city precipitately; but confidence, restored by " Bacon's Rebellion," was auditor-general of the colony from 1687 until his death, and was a member of the committee which founded the College of William and Mary.
The addresses of the secretaries of the various live-stock societies in the United Kingdom are published annually in the Live Stock Journal Almanac. The Maintenance of the Health of Live Stock.
Hammond 1 has constructed a table from information supplied by the secretaries of the cotton exchanges at New York, Charleston, Savannah, Mobile, New Orleans and Galveston, showing the sales of " spot " cotton at those ports for the twenty-two years between 1874-1875 and 1895-1896, and in all cases an absolute decline is evident.
There were also attached to a great household physicians, artists, secretaries, librarians, copyists, preparers of parchment, as well as pedagogues and preceptors of different kinds - readers, grammarians, men of letters and even philosophers - all of servile condition, besides accountants, managers and agents for the transaction of business.
The defter emini kept the registers for the nishanji, whose place he took on emergency, the others acted as secretaries and clerks.
Maret now became one of the First Consul's secretaries and shortly afterwards secretary of state.
Solicitor-general of the republic. The judges and solicitor-general are appointed by the president with the approval of the senate, but the tribunal chooses its own presiding officers and secretaries and, nominally, is independent of executive control.
The clergy, the only other educated class, supplied the king with his lawyers, secretaries and ambassadors.
His correspondence with Laud and with Sir Dudley Carleton and Sir Francis Windebank (Charles I.'s secretaries of state) are valuable sources for the history of the time.
There are, besides, a chief secretary, revenue secretary, secretary and two under-secretaries, a public works department secretary with two assistants.
The revenue administration of the province is superintended by a financial commissioner, assisted by two secretaries, and a director of land records and agriculture, with a land records departmental staff.
Among them were Fra Raimondo, who became master-general of the Dominicans, William Flete, an ascetically-minded Englishman from Cambridge, Stefano Maconi, who joined the Carthusians and ultimately became prior-general, and the two secretaries, Neri di Landoccio and Francesco Malavolti.
Dissensions began from the first, and were peculiarly acute between Shelburne and Fox, the two secretaries of state.
On the 2nd of April he was constrained to submit to the formation of a new ministry, in which the duke of Portland was prime minister and Fox and North were secretaries of state.
Between that date and the Revolution there had been only two secretaries of state, whose duties were divided by a geographical division of the globe into northern and southern departments.
In 1782 the duties of these two secretaries were revised, the northern department becoming the Foreign Office.
He is assisted by two under-secretaries of state (one of them a politician, the other a permanent civil servant), three assistant under-secretaries (civil servants), a librarian, a head of the treaty department and a staff of clerks.
At present, besides the president, who has usually a seat in the cabinet,' and whose salary is 5000 a year, there is a parliamentary secretary with a salary of 1200, a permanent secretary (salary X1500, rising to £1800), and four assistant secretaries (each with a salary of i 200) for the harbour, marine, commercial, labour and statistical, and railway departments.
Lammasch and his ministers shared their official premises peacefully with the new secretaries of state of the Austrian Republic, and his last official act was to send out posters with an appeal for peace and quiet.
Notwithstanding the continuous pressure of an active business life he found time to contribute largely many valuable articles to the magazines and newspapers, and took an active part in the proceedings of the Royal Statistical Society (of which he was one of the honorary secretaries, editor of its journal, and in1869-1871president) and the Political Economy Club.
Le Livre des tournois, a book of ceremonial, and the allegorical romance, Conqueste qu'un chevalier nomme le Cuer d'amour espris feist d'une dame appelee Doulce Mercy, with other works ascribed to him, were perhaps dictated to his secretaries, or at least compiled under his direction.
Of the last quality evidence is furnished in the stilted style of his letters, and in the fact recorded by Seward that he never permitted his under-secretaries to sit in his presence.
In 1798 he was elected to the council of Five Hundred by the department of Isere, and became one of its secretaries; and in the following year he voted against the Directory.
Besides these garments there are others: the long jubba, or cloth cloak, worn by mirzas (secretaries), government employs of high rank, as ministers, farmers of taxes, courtiers, physicians, priests; the abba, or camel-hair cloak of the Arab, worn by travellers, priests and horsemen; the pustin, or Afghan skincloak, used by travellers and the sick or aged; the nimtan, or common sheepskin jacket, with short sleeves, used by shopkeepers and the lower class of servants, grooms, &c., in winter; the yapanjah, or woollen Kurdish cloak, a kind of felt, having a shaggy side, of immense thickness, worn generally by shepherds, who use it as greatcoat, bed and bedding.
MUNSHI, or MooNSHI, the Urdu name of a writer or secretary, used in India of the native language teachers or secretaries employed by Europeans.
In 1567 he became one of the secretaries of state, receiving also about the same time the lucrative appointment of protonotary of Sicily, and in 1573 the death of Ruy Gomez himself made room for Perez's promotion to be head of the " despacho universal," or private bureau, from which Philip attempted to govern by assiduous correspondence the affairs of his vast dominions.
Another of the king's secretaries at this time, though in a less confidential relation, was a friend and contemporary of Perez, named Juan de Escovedo, who, however, after the fall of Tunis in 1574, was sent off to supersede Juan de Soto as secretary and adviser of Don John of Austria, thus leaving Perez without a rival.
The administration is conducted by a lieutenant-governor, with five secretaries and five under-secretaries.
He was even chosen to be one of the secretaries of Mahomet.
As Hamilton was somewhat officious and very combative, and Jefferson, although uncontentious, very suspicious and quite independent, both men holding inflexibly to opinions, cabinet harmony became impossible when the two secretaries had formed parties about them and their differences were carried into the 1 It was at this period of his life that Jefferson gave expression to some of the opinions for which he has been most severely criticized and ridiculed.