After the reign of Marcus Aurelius (according to Mommsen) the equites were divided into: (a) viri eminentissimi, the prefects of the praetorian guard; (b) viri perfectissimi, the other prefects and the heads of the financial and secretarial departments; (c) viri egregii, first mentioned in the reign of Antoninus Pius, a title by right of the procurators generally.
The secretarial class consisted of six categories: the nishanjis, the defterdars, the reis, the defter emini, the shakk-i-sani (or second class) defterdars and the shakk-i-salis (or third class) defterdars.
The chief official of the lan is the landshi fding, under whom are secretarial and fiscal departments.
It seems probable that he lived in the French embassy in some secretarial or tutorial position.
In any case Prosper was soon in Rome, attached to the pope in some secretarial or notarial capacity.
One of the cardinals acts as president, or prefect, as he is called; the congregation is assisted by a secretary and a certain number of inferior officials, for secretarial and office work.
As regards local government, Stockholm is a lain (administrative district) in [itself, distinct from the rural kin of the same name, under a high governor (dfversteithallare) and deputy, with departments for secretarial work, taxation and police.
As established by Mahommed II., the officials of the state were divided into four classes: (I) administrative; (2) ecclesiastical; (3) secretarial and (4) military.
Besides these members of the secretarial class, such as nishanjis and defterdars, as well as regular army officers, and occasionally members of the ecclesiastical class, or ulema, rose to the rank of vizier.
The Cnossian remains contain evidence of an elaborate system of registration, accountkeeping and other secretarial work, which perhaps indicates a considerable body of law.
The departments that had a vizir at their head were the following: court, ceremonies, shahs secretarial department, interior, correspondence between court and governors, revenue accounts and budget, finance, treasury, outstanding accounts, foreign affairs, war, army accounts, military stores, arsenals, justice, commerce, mines and industries, agriculture and Crown domains, Crown buildings, public works, public instruction, telegraphs, posts, mint, religious endowments and pensions, customs, press.