In fresh-water Hydromedusae the life-cycle is usually secondarily simplified, but in marine forms the life-cycle may be extremely complicated, and a given species often passes in the course of its history through widely different forms adapted to different habitats and modes of life.
Belonging primarily to the epithelial layer, the muscular cells may become secondarily sub-epithelial.
24); thirdly, in position and origin, being usually implanted on the extreme edge of the umbrella, but in Narcomedusae they become secondarily shifted and are given off high up on the ex-umbrella (figs.
The tissues of the bud become differentiated into ectoderm and endoderm, and the endoderm of the bud becomes secondarily continuous with that of the parent, but no part of the parental endoderm contributes to the building up of the daughter-polyp. Lang regarded this method of budding as universal in polyps, a notion disproved by O.
Brooks, on the other hand, as stated above, regards the medusa as the older type and looks upon both polyp and medusa, in the Hydromedusae, as derived from a free-swimming or floating actinula, the polyp being thus merely a fixed nutritive stage, possessing secondarily acquired powers of multiplication by budding.
This must not be taken to mean, however, that the medusa is derived from a sessile polyp; it must be regarded as a direct modification of the more ancient free actinula form, without primitively any intervening polyp-stage, such as has been introduced secondarily into the development of the Leptolinae and represents 'a revival, so to speak, of an ancestral form or larval stage, which has taken on a special role in the economy of the species.
In the biserial type the polyps on the two sides of the stem have primitively an alternating, zigzag arrangement; but, by a process of differential growth, quickened in the 1st, 3rd, 5th, &c., members of the stem, and retarded in the 2nd, 4th, 6th, &c., members, the polyps may assume secondarily positions opposite to one another on the two sides of the stem.
It is quite possible that some of these medusae will be found to be truly hypogenetic, that is to say, with a life-cycle secondarily simplified by suppression of metagenesis.
In such forms as Velella, Porpita, &c., the ancestor was an eight-rayed medusa (Disconula) which acquired a pneumatophore as an ectodermal pit on the ex-umbrella, and in which the organs (manubrium, tentacles, &c.) became secondarily multiplied, just as they do in Gastroblasta as the result of incomplete fission.
Thus the umbrella of the Siphonula became the protocodon, and its manubrium, the axis or stolon, which, by a process of dislocation of Organs, escaped, as it were, from the sub-umbrella through a cleft and became secondarily attached to the ex-umbrella.
The third and fourth oecumenical synods (Ephesus, 43 1; Chalcedon, 451) were primarily tribunals for the trials of Nestorius and Dioscorus; it was secondarily that they became organs of the universal episcopate for the definition of the faith, or legislative assemblies for the enactment of canons.
Here again the nephridial funnel seems to have been converted into or certainly replaced by a secondarily developed funnel.
It is plausible, then, to suppose that the dealing syndicate primarily, and the speculations of the public secondarily (secondarily, because in all likelihood the effect of its operation would be much less in magnitude), may account for the change.
Ptychodera ruficollis), seeming to indicate that the pleural folds have in such cases been secondarily suppressed.
I have aimed at establishing principally the historical position of the various questions, and secondarily the necessity for reforming more or less the traditional concepts."
Some of the most successful of the advances of medicine as a healing art have followed the detection of syphilitic disease of the vessels, or of the supporting tissues of nervous centres and of the peripheral nerves; so that, by specific medication, the treatment of paralytic, convulsive, and other terrible manifestations of nervous disease thus secondarily induced is now undertaken in early stages with definite prospect of cure.
The digestive system consists of a simple or bifurcated sac, opening through the mouth by means of a "pharynx bulbosus," adapted to act primarily as a sucker, and secondarily, when drawing blood, as an aspirator.
His new palace on the Palatine he intended to be primarily the seat of the Julian family and the cults associated with it, and secondarily the centre of the new popular religion.
11), "God hath set some in the Church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers," he points to a state of things which in his time prevailed in all the churches both of Jewish and heathen origin.
In the higher forms the opening of the gonad is shifted more and more towards the external aperture of each kidney until finally it is situated on the external surface, and thus the gonad secondarily acquires an independent aperture.
If he is to be believed, at the bottom of all organic evolution organic impulses becoming habits produce structural changes, which are transmitted by heredity; and as an impulse thus gradually becomes secondarily automatic, the will passes to higher activities, which in their turn become secondarily automatic, and so on.
The p p p p eschatology of the Old Testament is thus closely connected with, but not limited by, Messianic hope, as there are eschatological teachings that are not Messianic. As the Old Testament revelation is concerned primarily with the elect nation, and only secondarily (in the later writings) with the individual persons composing it, we follow the order of importance as well as of time in dealing first with the people.
Herbert Spencer from 1852 onwards maintained the principle of evolution and laid special stress on the moulding forces of the environment which called into being primarily new functions and secondarily new structures.
Secondarily, the thing itself is ambiguously said to be true in the sense of being signified as it is.
Each primary gill-cleft becomes divided into two by a tongue-bar which grows down secondarily from the upper wall of the cleft and fuses with the ventral wall.
They are (with rare exceptions, probably secondarily acquired) hypogenetic, the offspring resembling the parent, and both being sexual.
Eyestalks and the antennules in this aberrant group correspond to the primitive head somites or not, their distinctness is certainly a secondarily acquired character, for it is not found in the larvae, nor in any of the more primitive groups of Malacostraca.
It was instituted primarily as a precaution against the ever-present danger of a helot revolt, and secondarily perhaps as a training for young Spartans, who were sent out by the ephors to keep watch on the helots and assassinate any who might appear dangerous.
Known Echinoderms show the following features, imagined to be due to an ancestral pelmatozoic stage :- Increase in the coelomic cavities of the left side, and atrophy of those on the right; the dextral coil of the gut, recognizable in all classes, though often obscured; an incomplete secondary bilateralism about the plane including the main axis and the water-pore or its successor, the madreporite, often obscured by one or other of various tertiary bilateralisms; the change of the hydrocoel into a circumoral, arcuate or ring canal; development through a freeswimming, bilaterally symmetrical, ciliated larva, of which in many cases only a portion is transformed into the adult Echinoderm (where care of the brood has secondarily arisen, this larva is not developed).