94 seq.) as being at this time a strong tribe of some io,000 warriors, pre-eminent among the nomadic Arabs, eschewing agriculture, fixed houses and the use of wine, but adding to pastoral pursuits a profitable trade with the seaports in myrrh and spices from Arabia Felix, as well as a trade with Egypt in bitumen from the Dead Sea.
The coast of Sardinia contains few seaports, but a good proportion of these are excellent natural harbours.
It was one of the five seaports which remained Byzantine until the time of Pippin.
On the whole, however, France is inadequately provided with natural harbours; her long tract of coast washed by the Atlantic and the Bay of Biscay has sqarcely three or four good seaports, and those on the southern shore of the Channel form a striking contrast to the spacious maritime inlets on theEnglish side.
847 it became one of the most important seaports of central Italy (see Gaeta).
The vintage season; and in 1905-1907 complaints were rnany,~ while the seaports were continually short o~ trucks.
Massive walls, substantial edifices, commodious seaports, good roads, were the benefits conferred by this new government on Italy.
They fought for bare existence, for primacy in commerce, for the command of seaports, for the keys of mountain passes, for rivers, roads and all the avenues of wealth and plenty.
Charters granted to seaports often stipulated that the town should send so many herrings or other fish to the king annually during Lent.
These are places where the mode of travelling or of transport is changed, such as seaports, river ports and railway termini, or natural resting-places, such as a ford, the foot of a steep ascent on a road, the entrance of a valley leading up from a plain into the mountains, or a crossing-place of roads or railways.'
Finally, a great number of artels on the stock exchange, in the seaports, in the great cities, during the great fairs and on railways have grown up, and have acquired the confidence of tradespeople to such an extent that considerable sums of money and complicated banking operations are frequently handed over to an artelshik (member of an artel) without any receipt, his number or his name being accepted as sufficient guarantee.
The result is that the plain is being gradually extended in an easterly direction, and cities like Ravenna, Adria and Aquileia, which were once seaports, lie now many miles inland.
She now commanded the Adriatic, the Ionian islands, the archipelago, the Sea of Marmora and the Black Sea, the trade route between Constantinople and western Europe, and she had already established herself in the seaports of Syria, and thus held the trade route between Asia Minor and Europe.
The area over which it is spoken comprises the peninsula of Malacca with the adjacent islands (the Rhio-Lingga Archipelago), the greater part of the coast districts of Sumatra and Borneo, the seaports of Java, the Sunda and Banda Islands.
During the 14th century trade was carried on with Germany, Spain and Holland, and in 1346 Hartlepool provided five ships for the French war, being considered one of the chief seaports in the kingdom.
The production of these charts employed numerous licensed draughtsmen in the principal seaports of Italy and Catalonia, and among seamen these MS. charts remained popular long after the productions of the printing-press had become available.
Ghat is an important centre of the caravan trade between the Nigerian states and the seaports of the Mediterranean (see Tripoli).
Both in the east (at Batna) and the west (at Ain Sefra) the mountains are traversed by railways, which, starting from Mediterranean seaports, take the traveller into the Sahara.
Leith, Granton and Grangemouth serve as the chief passenger seaports for Edinburgh.
The rice-mills, almost all situated at the various seaports, secure the harvest from the cultivator through middlemen.
In 1793 peace was concluded between these two powers, the Siamese yielding to the Burmans the entire possession of the coast of Tenasserim on the Indian Ocean, and the two important seaports of Mergui and Tavoy.
Secured the high-roads of commerce to the Mediterranean together with the Phoenician seaports and then made himself master of Babylonia.
The American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is larger than the former, and is not uncommon in European seaports trading with America, being conveyed in cargoes of grain and other food produce.
Roads connecting noted localities with the chief town of such neighborhoods, or leading to seaports convenient of access.
The distances by rail from Johannesburg to the following seaports are: Lourengo Marques, 364 m.; Durban, 483 m.; East London, 6S9 m.; Port Elizabeth, 714 m.; Cape Town, 957 m.
The linking of the town to the seaports by railways during1892-1895gave considerable impetus to the gold mining industry.
Above sea-level, from which a railway runs to the small seaports of Santa and Chimbote, 172 m.
It was visited by Portuguese traders as early as 1522, and is one of the five seaports which were thrown open to foreign trade in 1842 by the treaty of Nanking.
The seaports of the colony are Tanga (pop. about 6000), Bagamoyo 5000 (with surrounding district some 18,000), Dar-es-Salaam 24,000, Kilwa 5000, (these have separate notices), Pangani, Sadani, Lindi and Mikindani.
Good roads for foot traffic have been made from the seaports to the trading stations on Lakes Nyasa, Tanganyika and Victoria.
Besides Algiers and Oran the principal seaports are Bona (36,004), Mostaganem (19,528), Philippeville (16,539), Bougie (10,419), Cherchel (4733) and La Calle (2774).
A decree of 1857 granted to the Paris-Lyons Company the right to construct a line linking Algiers with Oran (266 m.) and Constantine (290 m.) and shorter lines joining the seaports to the trunk line, notably Philippeville to Constantine (54 m.).
Of Tlemcen, across the Tell to the Tunisian frontier, whence it is continued to the city of Tunis; while traverse railways connect the seaports with the trunk line and with towns to the south, the Philippeville line being continued to Biskra.
Lynn has ranked high among English seaports from early times.
The whites are congregated in or near the chief towns, which include the capital, San Jose (pop. 1904 about 24,500), the four provincial capitals of Alajuela (4860), Cartago (4536), Heredia (7151) and Liberia or Guanacaste (2831), with the seaports of Puntarenas (3569), on the Pacific, and Limon (3171) on the Atlantic. These, with the exception of Heredia and Liberia, are described in separate articles.
All the chief towns except the seaports are situated within the mountainous region where the climate is temperate.
When the two lowlands are traced eastward they become confluent after the Niagara limestone has faded away in central New York, and the single lowland is continued under the name of Mohawk Valley, an east-west longitudinal depression that has been eroded on a belt of relatively weak strata between the resistant crystalline rocks of the Adirondacks on the north and the northern escarpment of the Appalachian plateau (Catskills-Helderbergs) on the south; forming a pathway of great historic and economic importance between the Atlantic seaports and the interior.
The district is traversed by the Bombay and Baroda railway, and has two seaports, Dholera and Gogo, the former of which has given its name to a mark of raw cotton in the Liverpool market.
The St Lawrence is far the most important Canadian river from the historic and economic points of view, since it provided the main artery of exploration in early days, and with its canals past rapids and between lakes still serves as a great highway of trade between the interior of the continent and the seaports of Montreal and Quebec. It is probable that politically Canada would have followed the course of the States to the south but for the planting of a French colony with widely extended trading posts along the easily ascended channel of the St Lawrence and the Great Lakes, so that this river was the ultimate bond of union between Canada and the empire.
The chief seaports from east to west are Halifax, N.S., Sydney, N.S., St John, N.B., Quebec and Montreal on the Atlantic; and Vancouver, Esquimalt and Victoria, B.C.; on the Pacific. Halifax is the ocean terminus of the Intercolonial railway; St John, Halifax and Vancouver of the Canadian Pacific railway.
Ballaghaderreen, Claremorris (Clare), Crossmolina and Swineford are lesser market towns; and Newport and Westport are small seaports on Clew Bay.
The port ranks fourth in importance among the seaports of the Cape and does a large forwarding trade.
N., and thence floated down to the seaports on Arosa Bay.
Villarreal has a station on the light railway between Onda and the seaports of Castellon de la Plana and Burriana.
The difficulties arising to Prussia from this source were experienced in a still greater degree by the seaports of Bremen and Hamburg, which were severely hampered by the particularism displayed by Hanover.
On the one side Protection were the seaports, the chambers of commerce, and the city of Berlin, the town council of which made itself the centre of the opposition.
The seaports wrested at the same period from the Saracens along the Spanish and Barbary coasts became important Genoese colonies, whilst in the Levant, on the shores of the Black Sea, and along the banks of the Euphrates were erected Genoese fortresses' of great strength.
Eventually the Norsemen in Ireland contented themselves with a small number of colonies, strictly confined in territory around certain seaports which they themselves had created: Dublin, Waterford and Wexford; though as the whole of Ireland was divided into petty kingdoms, it might easily happen that the Norse king in Ireland rose to the position - not much more than nominal - of over-king (Ard-Ri) for the whole land.
The seaports (more especially in Syria, including Phoenicia), were well known to the pirates, traders and sea-powers of the Levant.
3 Among important but secondary measures of his second administration were the extinguishment of Indian titles, and promotion of Indian emigration to lands beyond the Mississippi; reorganization of the militia; fortification of the seaports; reduction of the public debt; and a simultaneous reduction of taxes.