To that of Edward II., into a regular war-tax called escuage or scutage.
In November he met some of his nobles at Bury St Edmunds, but as they still refused to pay the scutage no agreement was reached.
Having thus disposed of this matter, the grievances of the barons are again considered, the vexed question of scutage being dealt with.
Says that in future no scutage or aid, beyond the three recognized feudal aids, shall be levied except by the consent of the general council of the nation (commune concilium regni nostri), while the three recognized aids shall only be levied at a reasonable rate.
- For more detailed information the reader is referred to the articles English Law; France: French Law and Institutions, Villenage; Manor; Scutage; Knight Service; Hide.
Baldwin, The Scutage and Knight Service in England (Chicago, 1897); Rudolf Gneist, Adel and Ritterschaft in England (1853); and F.
Moreover, after the knight's liability to personal service in war had been modified in the 12th century by the scutage system, it became necessary in the first quarter of the r3th to compel landowners to take up the knighthood which in theory they should have coveted as an honour - a compulsion which was soon systematically enforced (Distraint of Knighthood, 1278), and became a recognized source of royal income.
Henry developed as far as he was able the system of scutage (q.v.) which his grandfather had apparently invented; by this the vassal compounded for his forty days personal service by paying money, with which the king could hire professional soldiers.
Provides for the assembly of the council when its consent is necessary for raising an aid or a scutage.