PHEIDIAS, son of Charmides, universally regarded as the greatest of Greek sculptors, was born at Athens about 500 B.C. We have varying accounts of his training.
Plastic objects, carved in stone or ivory, cast or beaten in metals (gold, silver, copper and bronze), or modelled in clay, faience, paste, &c. Very little trace has yet been found of large free sculpture, but many examples exist of sculptors' smaller work.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about sculptors from Greek and Roman times.
Of the various temples in which statues by Pheidias, Alcamenes and other great sculptors are known to have been placed, no traces have yet been discovered; excavation has not been possible in a large portion of the lower city, which has always been inhabited.
There may, also be mentioned many sculptors and architects, such as Lorenzo Maitani, architect of Orvieto cathedral (end of 13th century); Camaino di Crescentino; Tino di Camaino, sculptor of the monument to Henry VII.
It is often difficult to obtain quite accurate or even adequate reproductions of scenes and subjects, and, when this is done, it is obviously necessary to refrain from treating the work of the old artists and sculptors as equivalent to photographic representations.
There is a splendid museum of medieval and Renaissance antiquities in the Bargello, the ancient palace of the Podesta, itself one of the finest buildings in the city; among its many treasures are works of Donatello, Ghiberti, Verrochio and other sculptors, and large collections of ivory, enamel and bronze ware.
Stone has never been in favor in Japan as a material for the higher expression of the sculptors art.
The first historical period of glyptic art in Japan reaches from the end of the 6th to the end of the 12th century, culminating in, the work of the great Nara sculptors, Unkei and Period, his pupil Kwaikei.
The Buddhist sculptors, however, tended to grow more conventional and the metal-workers more naturalistic as the 18th century began to wane.
The initiator was Hidari Jingoro (1594-1652), at first a simple carpenter, afterwards one of the most famous sculptors in the land of great artists.
They worked, too, with a skill little inferior to that of the GotOs, Naras, and other aristocratic sculptors of sword ornaments, and often with a refinement which their relative disadvantages in education and associations render especially remarkable.
Of splendid sculptors in wood that graced the 11th, 12th and I3th centuries left names never to be forgotten, but undoubtedly many other artists of scarcely less force regarded bronze-casting as their principal business.
He and the craftsmen of the school he established completely refute the theory that the anatomical solecisms commonly seen in the works of Japanese sculptors are due to faulty observation.
Architects, turners, tilemakers, decorative artists and sculptors, coming from China and from Korea, erected grand temples for the worship of Buddha enshrining images of much beauty and adorned with paintings and carvings of considerable merit.
And other noble personages, and was the author of a long letter on ancient painters and sculptors prefixed to the third volume of Vasari.
Pradier and Chaponniere, the sculptors; Arlaud, Diday and Calame, the artists; Mallet, who revealed Scandinavia to the literary world; Necker, the minister; Sismondi, the historian of the Italian republics; General Dufour, author of the great survey which bears the name of the "Dufour Map," have each a niche in the Temple of Fame.
From that time, apparently under the influence of Athenian sculptors, he was conceived as the ideal of a youthful warrior, and was for a time associated with Aphrodite and Eros.
Of modern sculptors the works of Myslbek and Sucharda are prominent in the public monuments at Prague.
The latter, as well as others of the younger school of Czech sculptors, such as Bilek, Kafka and Maiatka, studied under Rodin at Paris.
Gothenburg was the birthplace of the poet Bengt Lidner (1757-1793) and two of Sweden's greatest sculptors, Bengt Erland Fogelberg (1786-1854) and Johann Peter Molin (1814-1873).
In the early development of architecture and sculpture Pistoia played a very important part; these arts, as they existed in Tuscany before the time of Niccola Pisano, can perhaps be better studied in Pistoia than anywhere else; nor is the city less rich in the later works produced by the school of sculptors founded by Niccola.
The sculptors of the Laocoon are among the priests of Athena Lindia, whose names are recorded by inscriptions.
(1887); Ancient Athens (1902); Handbook of Greek Sculpture (1905); Six Greek Sculptors (1910).
From the city on the banks of the Bisagno, is one of the chief features of Genoa; its situation is of great natural beauty and it is remarkable for its sepulchral monuments, many of which have been executed by the foremost sculptors of modern Italy.
Vii., mostly on methods of decoration, has a preface (as usual) on the opinions of ancient Greek writers, with lists of Greek sculptors, architects and writers on architecture, and of Roman architects.
His famous sepulchre, the Mausoleum (the remains of it are now in the British Museum), was a monument upon which the most eminent Greek sculptors of the time worked in rivalry (Plin.
Among others of the name may be mentioned (3) Athenodorus Of Teos, who played the cithara at the wedding of Alexander the Great and Statira at Susa (324 B.C.); (4) a Greek physician of the 1st century A.D., who wrote on epidemic diseases; and two sculptors, of whom (5) one executed the statues of Apollo and Zeus which the Spartans dedicated at Delphi after Aegospotami; and (6) the other was a son of Alexander of Rhodes, whom he helped in the Laocoon group.
Bartlett in Boston, of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, the Academie Julien and the sculptors Henri M.
The marble, which was exported from the 6th century B.C., and used by Praxiteles and other great Greek sculptors, was obtained by means of subterranean quarries driven horizontally or at a descending angle into the rock, and the marble thus quarried by lamplight got the name of Lychnites, Lychneus (from lychnos, a lamp), or Lygdos (Plin.
The most skilful sculptors, however, had but little of this after-touching to do, the final modelling and even polish which they had put upon the wax being faithfully reproduced in the bronze casting.
Of the two chief methods of working bronze, gold and silver, it is probable that the hammer process was first practised, at least for statues, among the Greeks, who themselves attributed the invention of the art of hollow casting to Theodorus and Rhoecus, both Samian sculptors, about the middle of the 6th century B.C. Pausanias specially mentions that one of the oldest statues he had ever seen was a large figure of Zeus in Sparta, made of hammered bronze plates riveted together.
Marble was comparatively but little used by the earlier Greek sculptors, and even Myron, a rather older man than Pheidias, FIG.
1189) by Giovanni Antonio Amedeo (1498), one of the best Lombard sculptors and architects of this period (1447-1522) and a native of Pavia, which has a few other works by him.
Thus fettered, even the realism of the Gothic sculptors failed, except in rare instances, of its full expression.
The classical stimulus came to painters, sculptors and architects chiefly through literature.
Adam Krafft, Veit Stoss and Peter Vischer form a trinity of sculptors of which any city might be proud.
As the abode of the sculptors Dipoenus and Scyllis it gained pre-eminence in woodcarving and bronze work such as is still to be seen in the archaic metal facings found at Olympia.
During the Persian wars Sicyon could place 3000 heavy-armed men in the field; its school of bronze sculptors still flourished, and produced in Canachus a master of the late archaic style.
We meet with, during the present century, a considerable number of names of poets and dramatists, no doubt very minor, as also painters, sculptors and musical composers.
At the Paris International Exhibition of 1878 several native Finnish painters and sculptors exhibited works which would do credit to any country; and both in the fine and applied arts Finland occupied a position thoroughly creditable.
It is much prized by wheelwrights, cabinet-makers, sculptors, &c., on the Continent; while knotted roots are used for inlaying.
Of the numerous bridges, the most remarkable are the Schloss-briicke, built after designs by Schinkel in 1822-1824, with eight colossal figures of white marble, representing ideal stages in a warrior's life, the work of Drake, Albert Wolff and other eminent sculptors; the Kurfiirstenor Lange-briicke, built 1692-1695, and restored in 1895, with an equestrian statue of the great elector, and the Kaiser-Wilhelm-briicke (1886-1889) connecting the Lustgarten with the Kaiser-Wilhelm-strasse in the inner town.
Under the portico are monuments of the sculptors Rauch and Schadow, the architect Schinkel, and the art critic Winckelmann.
Many of the sculptors of antiquity, including Pheidias, Polyclitus, Cresilas and Phradmon, executed statues of Amazons; and there are many existing reproductions of these.
The development of higher education, without a corresponding advance of technical education, has created an intellectual class, comprising many men of letters, and several painters, musicians and sculptors, though none of great eminence; it also tends to produce many aspirants to official or professional careers, who find employment difficult to obtain.
It had been the ~ ~ golden age of the arquebus and the viol, of sculptors and musicians, of poets and humanists, of fratricidal conflicts and of love-songs, of mignon-s and martyrs.
The internal decorations, especially the enormous quantity of wall ornaments, consisting chiefly of scrolls and bas-reliefs, were executed by different sculptors under the personal direction of Malatesta, who, even when engaged in war, sent continual instructions about their work.
We are all sculptors and painters, and our material is our own flesh and blood and bones.
Spielmann, British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day (London, 190t).