Pulmonaria, Hepatica, Scrophularia, and others.
Upon the highest summits are found Saponaria Pumilio (resembling our Silene acaulis) and varieties of Galium, Euphorbia, Astragalus, Veronica, Jurinea, Festuca, Scrophularia, Geranium, Asphodeline, Allium, Asperula; and, on the margins of the snow fields, a Taraxacum and Ranunculus demissus.
Hymenopterid flowers, which fall into the following groups: Bee-flowers proper, humble-bee flowers requiring a longer proboscis to reach the nectar, wasp-flowers such as fig-wort (Scrophularia nodosa) and ichneumon flowers such as tway-blade (Listera ovata).
In Scrophularia the fifth stamen appears as a scale-like body; in other Scrophulariaceae, as in Pentstemon, it assumes the form of a filament, with hairs at its apex in place of an anther.
In Scrophularia the fifth stamen appears in the form of a scale; and in many Pentstemons it is reduced to a filament with hairs or a shrivelled membrane at the apex.